Carbon Oxide Causes Supernovas And Will Destroy The Solar System

Strange as that may sound, it’s true. Just no people involved.

See, small stars degenerate into White Dwarf stars. Some of these gather just enough excess matter to blow up and become a Type 1a Supernova. A supernova in your neighborhood pretty much means you are toasted to a cinder.

But what is the composition of those White Dwarf stars? Carbon & Oxygen.

A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter. A white dwarf is very dense: its mass is comparable to that of the Sun, while its volume is comparable to that of Earth. A white dwarf’s faint luminosity comes from the emission of stored thermal energy; no fusion takes place in a white dwarf wherein mass is converted to energy. The nearest known white dwarf is Sirius B, at 8.6 light years, the smaller component of the Sirius binary star. There are currently thought to be eight white dwarfs among the hundred star systems nearest the Sun. The unusual faintness of white dwarfs was first recognized in 1910. The name white dwarf was coined by Willem Luyten in 1922.

I’ll ignore for the moment that Sirius is in fact a triple star system.
It is just a wiki after all…

So we’ve got at least 8 of those suckers near us, and one of them at least has nearby partners. Part of how a White Dwarf comes to blow up is by accumulating matter from a partner star in a binary (or in this case trinary) system. So most likely it’s just a matter of time till one of those near us blows up.

LAWRENCE — In 2016, researchers published “slam dunk” evidence, based on iron-60 isotopes in ancient seabed, that supernovae buffeted the Earth — one of them about 2.6 million years ago. University of Kansas researcher Adrian Melott, professor of physics and astronomy, supported those findings in Nature with an associated letter, titled “Supernovae in the neighborhood.”

Melott has followed up since those findings with an examination of the effects of the supernovae on Earth’s biology. In new research to appear in Astrophysical Journal, the KU researcher and colleagues argue the estimated distance of the supernova thought to have occurred roughly 2.6 million years ago should be cut in half.

“There’s even more evidence of that supernova now,” he said. “The timing estimates are still not exact, but the thing that changed to cause us to write this paper is the distance. We did this computation because other people did work that made a revised distance estimate, which cut the distance in half. But now, our distance estimate is more like 150 light years.”

A supernova exploding at such a range probably wouldn’t touch off mass extinctions on Earth, Melott said.

“People estimated the ‘kill zone’ for a supernova in a paper in 2003, and they came up with about 25 light years from Earth,” he said. “Now we think maybe it’s a bit greater than that. They left some effects out or didn’t have good numbers, so now we think it may be a bit larger distance. We don’t know precisely, and of course it wouldn’t be a hard-cutoff distance. It would be a gradual change. But we think something more like 40 or 50 light years. So, an event at 150 light years should have some effects here but not set off a mass extinction.”

OK, 40 to 50 light years. And we have a White Dwarf at a little over 8, with companions, and at least 7 more near by. Oh Joy… /sarc;

So back at the wiki about how these things form:

White dwarfs are thought to be the final evolutionary state of stars whose mass is not high enough to become a neutron star, which would include the Sun and over 97% of the other stars in the Milky Way. After the hydrogen-fusing period of a main-sequence star of low or medium mass ends, such a star will expand to a red giant during which it fuses helium to carbon and oxygen in its core by the triple-alpha process. If a red giant has insufficient mass to generate the core temperatures, around 1 billion K, required to fuse carbon, an inert mass of carbon and oxygen will build up at its center. After such a star sheds its outer layers and forms a planetary nebula, it will leave behind a core, which is the remnant white dwarf. Usually, white dwarfs are composed of carbon and oxygen. If the mass of the progenitor is between 8 and 10.5 solar masses (M☉), the core temperature will be sufficient to fuse carbon but not neon, in which case an oxygen–neon–magnesium white dwarf may form. Stars of very low mass will not be able to fuse helium, hence, a helium white dwarf may form by mass loss in binary systems.

So there you have it. Our Sun, destined to become a Carbon/Oxygen White Dwarf and kill us all in the process, then nova if enough mass falls into it. Along with 97% of the other stars. We’re going to be surrounded by CO / CO2 bombs.

Carbon detonation or Carbon deflagration is the violent reignition of thermonuclear fusion in a white dwarf star that was previously slowly cooling. It involves a runaway thermonuclear process which spreads through the white dwarf in a matter of seconds, producing a Type Ia supernova which releases an immense amount of energy as the star is blown apart.
The carbon detonation/deflagration process leads to a supernova by a different route from the better known Type II (core-collapse) supernova (the type II is caused by the cataclysmic explosion of the outer layers of a massive star as its core implodes).

A white dwarf is the remnant of a small to medium size star (our sun is an example of these). At the end of its life, the star has burned its hydrogen and helium fuel, and thermonuclear fusion processes cease. The star does not have enough mass to either burn much heavier elements, or to implode into a neutron star or type II supernova as a larger star can, from the force of its own gravity, so it gradually shrinks and becomes very dense as it cools, glowing white and then red, for a period many times longer than the present age of the Universe.

Occasionally though, a white dwarf gains mass from another source – for example a binary star companion that is close enough for the dwarf star to siphon sufficient amounts of matter onto itself or a collision with other stars
, the siphoned matter having been expelled during the process of the companion’s own late stage stellar evolution. If the white dwarf gains enough matter, its internal pressure and temperature will rise enough for carbon to begin fusing in its core. Carbon detonation generally occurs at the point when the accreted matter pushes the white dwarf’s mass close to the Chandrasekhar limit of roughly 1.4 solar masses. This is the mass at which gravity can overcome the electron degeneracy pressure which had prevented the star from collapsing during its lifetime. The same also happens when two white dwarfs merge and the mass of the body formed is below the Chandrasekhar limit; if two white dwarves merge and the result is over the limit, a Type 1a supernova will occur.

A main sequence star supported by thermal pressure would expand and cool which automatically counterbalances an increase in thermal energy. However, degeneracy pressure is independent of temperature; the white dwarf is unable to regulate the fusion process in the manner of normal stars, so it is vulnerable to a runaway fusion reaction.

In the case of a white dwarf, the restarted fusion reactions releases heat, but the outward pressure that exists in the star and supports it against further collapse is initially due almost entirely to degeneracy pressure, not fusion processes or heat. Therefore, even when fusion recommences the outward pressure that is key to the star’s thermal balance does not increase much. One result is that the star does not expand much to balance its fusion and heat processes with gravity and electron pressure, as it did when burning hydrogen (until too late). This increase of heat production without a means of cooling by expansion raises the internal temperature dramatically, and therefore the rate of fusion also increases extremely fast as well, a form of positive feedback known as thermal runaway.
The flame accelerates dramatically, in part due to the Rayleigh–Taylor instability and interactions with turbulence. The resumption of fusion spreads outward in a series of uneven, expanding “bubbles” in accordance with Rayleigh–Taylor instability. Within the fusion area, the increase in heat with unchanged volume results in an exponentially rapid increase in the rate of fusion – a sort of supercritical event as thermal pressure increases boundlessly. As hydrostatic equilibrium is not possible in this situation, a “thermonuclear flame” is triggered and an explosive eruption through the dwarf star’s surface that completely disrupts it, seen as a Ia supernova.

Regardless of the exact details of this nuclear fusion, it is generally accepted that a substantial fraction of the carbon and oxygen in the white dwarf is converted into heavier elements within a period of only a few seconds, raising the internal temperature to billions of degrees. This energy release from thermonuclear fusion (1–2×1044 J[5]) is more than enough to unbind the star; that is, the individual particles making up the white dwarf gain enough kinetic energy to fly apart from each other. The star explodes violently and releases a shock wave in which matter is typically ejected at speeds on the order of 5,000–20000 km/s, roughly 6% of the speed of light. The energy released in the explosion also causes an extreme increase in luminosity. The typical visual absolute magnitude of Type Ia supernovae is Mv = −19.3 (about 5 billion times brighter than the Sun), with little variation. This process, of a volume supported by electron degeneracy pressure instead of thermal pressure gradually reaching conditions capable of igniting runaway fusion, is also found in a less dramatic form in a helium flash in the core of a sufficiently massive red giant star.

So there you have it folks. Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide are going to destroy the solar system and it’s all your fault. Send grant money so we can find ways to mitigate this Carbon Detonation and save the children so they can see snow again and kittens can play with puppies.

In Conclusion

We all knew CO2 was going to destroy the planet, now it is confirmed as inevitable. No more than 10 or 20 billion years and it’s guaranteed that’s where we end up. But not only that, it’s far worse than we thought! With 97% of stars being in this type range, every single star system with life on it is doomed. Doomed! I Say! We MUST act now to find ways to sequester this carbon where it will be safe. We simply must Save The Galaxy from these rogue racist WHITE dwarf stars. Time is running out! Send money now! or be responsible for the murder of the Galaxy! /sarc; (sort of… parody is more like it. Then again, some of the stuff published as Peer Reviewed is not that much different…)

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Posted in Human Interest, Nukes, Science Bits | Tagged , , , , , | 27 Comments

OMG! “Climate Change” Moving Earth POLES! We’re All Going To Fall Off!!


Well, sort of…

They do not claim we are going to fall off. I added that bit. (Hey, the Warmistas make shit up and scream death and damnation over a splinter in their paw, so why can’t we?)

Yes, it’s true. The National Geographic has said so. The rotational poles of the Earth are being moved by CO2. No doubt about it. The earth is going to wobble and wobble and then fall right over.

Climate Change Is Moving the North Pole
By Brian Clark Howard

PUBLISHED April 8, 2016

Yes, I double checked the date. That’s April EIGHT not April FIRST.

Finding the North Pole means traveling north, right?

Thus begins this mighty tome of deep thinking…

One is left to wonder if the North Pole is moving what happens to the South Pole, but it would seem that Nat. Geo. doesn’t care about the southern hemisphere anymore. After all, all the interesting people and places are in the North where they are located and the south is mostly water and ice and stuff. Besides, nobody they know goes there anymore. Sure it was interesting in the 1800’s when there was no internet porn and pictures of native black women dancing gave them a tingle up their leg, but that was then and this is now. Unless bouncing black bosoms is caused by “Climate Change”, it’s not going to make the pages. (Hmmmm…. wonder if a photo essay on how “Global Warming” is causing less and less clothing… just sayin’… )

Yes, but with a slight caveat: Earth’s northern pole is drifting rapidly eastward, and it looks like climate change is to blame. The discovery may have major implications for studies of ice loss and drought, potentially improving our ability to predict such changes in the future.

Yes indeedy do. It’s that nasty ol’ “Climate Change” shoving the North Pole around and being a bully again. Shoving it East. (You folks in the UK better watch out. Get your Santa House ready ’cause the Pole is a commin’!

Earth turns around an axis like a giant spinning top. The places where that invisible axis intersects with the planet's surface are the north and south rotational poles. Due to Earth's wobble on its axis, these spots drift in roughly decade-long cycles. (All this motion is a completely separate mechanism from the behavior of the planet's magnetic poles, which also reverse periodically over the course of millions of years.)

As ice melts and aquifers are drained, Earth's distribution of mass is changing—and with it the position of the planet's spin axis.

Scientists pinpoint the geographic north and south poles by taking the long-term averages of those rotational positions.

Explorers and scientists have been reliably measuring the precise positions of the rotational poles since 1899, first by measuring the relative positions of the stars and then by using satellite telemetry. Over the past century or so, the poles have tended to wander by just a few centimeters a year.

"That may seem like a tiny variation, but there is very important information embedded in that," says Surendra Adhikari, an Earth scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California.

The north pole had shifted back and forth from east to west, with on overall trend that had it moving toward Canada. But since 2000, the pole’s typical drift has “made a dramatic change,” says Adhikari. Since that time, the pole has been moving steadily eastward by about 75 degrees, heading toward the Prime Meridian that runs through Greenwich, England.

Well, at least they discovered the South Pole at last and tied the two together. Though one wonders just which direction is East to West AT the North Pole?

BUT all you folks in England, you are in just so much in a world of hurt. The Pole is COMING and headed straight for Greenwich, England. NASA says so.

This shift has been on the order of 10 centimeters a year, so it’s probably not enough to warrant a recalculation of the planet’s geographic pole–although later generations may have to consider it if things keep changing, notes Adhikari.

What’s most exciting to the scientists is that they can now explain what’s actually causing the drift, and that may have significant ramifications on climate science.

Oh, wait, 4 INCHES a year. AND it has been since 2000 so 17 whole years. Why, that’s a wopping 68 inches. 5.6 feet. Out of about 24,901 miles of circumference. Golly. AND we know what’s causing it. No, not the same things that have caused the pole to wander around for millions of years. Not the gravity of the Moon, nor the Sun, nor the perturbations of the planets. NONE of those things that have made the planet nutate, bob, and wobbly forever. Nope, not at all. Now it simply must be cow farts and car exhaust.

One wonders if they have “done the math” to plot the actual planetary forces involved with enough precision to know.

But the physics are so complex that scientists could only guess at how this actually works in the real world.

So that would be a “No” then…

Well. Guess they’ll have to make something up that gets headlines and more grant money. let’s call it a “secret” and then we can be like Indiana Jones and find it in the “secret” cave…

Now, Adhikari has proposed a way to explain the process. The secret was discovering that it’s not just shrinking glaciers that change Earth’s mass distribution, as some scientists had thought. A lot of mass also gets moved around due to large-scale loss of liquid water from the land, the team reports this week in Science Advances.

Adhikari and his colleague and co-author Erik Ivins think the rotational pole is shifting toward Europe because there has been a massive loss of water from lakes and aquifers in Eurasia, around the Caspian Sea, and in India. Warmer temperatures overall have led to more evaporation and less precipitation in many areas, and booming human populations have been sucking up groundwater from reservoirs and wells (watch Saudi Arabia get drained dry).

Yes, you heard it there first. The Saudi Arabian DESERT is getting dry.

Oh, and they seem to be unconcerned about all the aquifer draining in North America that would be a counter balance to the Eurasia bit. While here in California that’s all we hear about. How we are destroying the planet by sucking all the water out of the USA.

But at least all the Warmista True Believers can invite him to the parties now.

“What we have shown is that melting ice and a pattern of continental water storage are combining to cause a dramatic shift in the direction of the pole,” says Adhikari.

Gavin Schmidt, a climate scientist with NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York, commends the authors for adding to the discussion about climate science. Schmidt, who was not affiliated with the study, agrees that human activity has caused “detectable shifts in mass from ice sheet melt and groundwater extraction.”

You tell him, Gavin! He done good by tying in “Climate Change” to irrigation water. Never mind being “not affiliated”. He’s got an invite in the mail to join the “We’re All GOING TO DIE!!!” (and CO2 is the reason) club.

Not only that, it’s going to be better than 42 as the answer to life, the universe, and everything!

Pole Predictions

Adhikari and Ivins hope their findings will help other climate researchers improve our understanding of global forces.

“We should be able to use polar-motion data to answer some interesting questions,” says Adhikari. The data could help make climate models more accurate, because scientists could work backwards from the robust archive on polar drift to infer the melting and evaporation rates of the past.

“We have much better data on the position of the poles than we do on melting glaciers through history,” Adhikari notes.

Scientists might similarly be able to track how fast specific areas have dried out from drought. The end result could be more accurate predictions of changes in climate in the future, as well as a better understanding of how our planet spins through space.

Yes siree, we don’t have the ability to do the math to actually get it right (per their own statement) but now we can use a nice story about “Climate Change” to tune models and find hidden droughts in the past. Golly.

So much speculation and fantasy drawn from 4 inches a year…

In Conclusion

So, what data do they have on spin axis shift over the 1800 year lunar drift up and down? Did they allow for all the gigatons of sea water sloshing about and how tides change over centuries? How much about what happens when the sun is in a ‘trefoil’ motion from the rest of the planets interacting gravity? Have they really solved the multi-body math for the entire solar system to actually know the future rotation of the Earth? Have they allowed for changes of the ‘electric universe’ homopolar motor effects?

But never mind… Just know that the UK is in the cross-hairs. Your up for being the next North Pole. And it’s all the Arab’s fault. (Hey, they said it, not me. Burning Arabian oil and pumping the Arabian desert dry.) So go feel guilty and send them grant money. They deserve it for cooking up a yarn like that.

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Posted in AGW Climate Perspective, AGW Science and Background, Humor | Tagged , , , , | 13 Comments

Duvuan Pi – First Try

This is my first trial of an “update” from a Raspbian Jessie image to a Devuan image on the Pi Model 3.

It was in my “drafts” folder for about a year, and in that time a production release of Devuan for the Raspberry Pi has been made. So now we can just download and install that build. Still, it’s an interesting thing to see what the “Upgrade” from Raspbian process had been.

I’m following directions here:

This is a blow by blow:

Edit the /etc/apt config file to point at Devuan Jessie:

root@RaPi_Devuan:/home/pi# cat /etc/debian_version 
root@RaPi_Devuan:/home/pi# vi /etc/apt/sources.list

The 7.x batch are Wheezy that is SystemD Free and also supposedly can be upgraded to Devuan Jessie.
The 8.x batch is Jessie, and for Debian Jessie, is SystemD afflicted.

You can use any editor you like. I’m “old school” and use vi (vim) some folks like nano… whatever.

After the edit, I’m pointing at

root@RaPi_Devuan:/home/pi# cat /etc/apt/sources.list
deb jessie main contrib non-free rpi
# Uncomment line below then 'apt-get update' to enable 'apt-get source'
#deb-src jessie main contrib non-free rpi

deb jessie main

root@RaPi_Devuan:/home/pi# apt-get update
Get:1 jessie InRelease [13.2 kB]
Get:2 jessie InRelease [14.9 kB]                                            
Get:3 jessie/main armhf Packages [117 kB]                                              
Get:4 jessie/main armhf Packages [8,981 kB]
Get:5 jessie InRelease [108 kB]                    
Ign jessie InRelease                                                         
Get:6 jessie/ui armhf Packages [53.6 kB]           
Get:7 jessie/main armhf Packages [6,648 kB]                   
Ign jessie/main Translation-en_GB                               
Ign jessie/main Translation-en                                  
Ign jessie/ui Translation-en_GB                                 
Ign jessie/ui Translation-en                                    
Ign jessie/main Translation-en_GB                                                                     
Ign jessie/main Translation-en                                                                        
Get:8 jessie/contrib armhf Packages [37.5 kB]                                                                                   
Get:9 jessie/non-free armhf Packages [70.3 kB]                                                                                  
Get:10 jessie/rpi armhf Packages [1,356 B]                                                                                      
Ign jessie/contrib Translation-en_GB                                                                                            
Ign jessie/contrib Translation-en                                                                                               
Ign jessie/main Translation-en_GB                                                                                               
Ign jessie/main Translation-en                                                                                                  
Ign jessie/non-free Translation-en_GB                                                                                           
Ign jessie/non-free Translation-en                                                                                              
Ign jessie/rpi Translation-en_GB                                                                                                
Ign jessie/rpi Translation-en                                                                                                   
Fetched 16.0 MB in 37s (424 kB/s)                                                                                                                                  
Reading package lists... Done
W: GPG error: jessie InRelease: The following signatures couldn't be verified because the public key is not available: NO_PUBKEY 94532124541922FB

Then we install the Devuan key ring:

root@RaPi_Devuan:/home/pi# apt-get install devuan-keyring 
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
The following NEW packages will be installed:
0 upgraded, 1 newly installed, 0 to remove and 338 not upgraded.
Need to get 33.2 kB of archives.
After this operation, 81.9 kB of additional disk space will be used.
WARNING: The following packages cannot be authenticated!
Install these packages without verification? [y/N] y
Get:1 jessie/main devuan-keyring all 2016.11.22 [33.2 kB]
Fetched 33.2 kB in 0s (48.9 kB/s)   
Selecting previously unselected package devuan-keyring.
(Reading database ... 130583 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../devuan-keyring_2016.11.22_all.deb ...
Unpacking devuan-keyring (2016.11.22) ...
Setting up devuan-keyring (2016.11.22) ...

Now SystemV Init core (who knows if this is a succeed or a fail, it has odd messages, but nothing to compare with at the moment):

root@RaPi_Devuan:/home/pi# apt-get install sysvinit-core
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
The following extra packages will be installed:
  cgmanager libcgmanager0 libpam-systemd libsystemd0 systemd systemd-shim
Suggested packages:
  systemd-ui pm-utils
The following packages will be REMOVED:
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  cgmanager libcgmanager0 systemd-shim sysvinit-core
The following packages will be upgraded:
  libpam-systemd libsystemd0 systemd
3 upgraded, 4 newly installed, 1 to remove and 334 not upgraded.
Need to get 2,668 kB of archives.
After this operation, 690 kB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y
WARNING: The following packages cannot be authenticated!
Install these packages without verification? [y/N] y
Get:1 jessie/main sysvinit-core armhf 2.88dsf-59.2+devuan2 [129 kB]
Get:2 jessie/main libcgmanager0 armhf 0.33-2+deb8u2 [42.5 kB]
Get:3 jessie/main cgmanager armhf 0.33-2+deb8u2 [71.7 kB]
Get:4 jessie/main systemd-shim armhf 9-1 [16.1 kB]
Get:5 jessie/main libpam-systemd armhf 215-17+deb8u5 [112 kB]
Get:6 jessie/main systemd armhf 215-17+deb8u5 [2,211 kB]
Get:7 jessie/main libsystemd0 armhf 215-17+deb8u5 [84.8 kB]
Fetched 2,668 kB in 3s (877 kB/s)     
Preconfiguring packages ...
Selecting previously unselected package libcgmanager0:armhf.
(Reading database ... 130591 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../libcgmanager0_0.33-2+deb8u2_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking libcgmanager0:armhf (0.33-2+deb8u2) ...
Selecting previously unselected package cgmanager.
Preparing to unpack .../cgmanager_0.33-2+deb8u2_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking cgmanager (0.33-2+deb8u2) ...
Selecting previously unselected package systemd-shim.
Preparing to unpack .../systemd-shim_9-1_armhf.deb ...
Adding 'diversion of /usr/share/dbus-1/system-services/org.freedesktop.systemd1.service to /usr/share/dbus-1/system-services/org.freedesktop.systemd1.service.systemd by systemd-shim'
Unpacking systemd-shim (9-1) ...
Processing triggers for man-db ( ...
Processing triggers for systemd (215-17+deb8u3) ...
Processing triggers for dbus (1.8.20-0+deb8u1) ...
dpkg: systemd-sysv: dependency problems, but removing anyway as you requested:
 init depends on systemd-sysv | sysvinit-core | upstart; however:
  Package systemd-sysv is to be removed.
  Package sysvinit-core is not installed.
  Package upstart is not installed.
 libpam-systemd:armhf depends on systemd-shim (>= 8-2) | systemd-sysv; however:
  Package systemd-shim is not configured yet.
  Package systemd-sysv is to be removed.

(Reading database ... 130622 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing systemd-sysv (215-17+deb8u3) ...
Processing triggers for man-db ( ...
Selecting previously unselected package sysvinit-core.
(Reading database ... 130605 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../sysvinit-core_2.88dsf-59.2+devuan2_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking sysvinit-core (2.88dsf-59.2+devuan2) ...
Processing triggers for man-db ( ...
Setting up sysvinit-core (2.88dsf-59.2+devuan2) ...
Not restarting sysvinit
(Reading database ... 130630 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../libpam-systemd_215-17+deb8u5_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking libpam-systemd:armhf (215-17+deb8u5) over (215-17+deb8u3) ...
Preparing to unpack .../systemd_215-17+deb8u5_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking systemd (215-17+deb8u5) over (215-17+deb8u3) ...
Preparing to unpack .../libsystemd0_215-17+deb8u5_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking libsystemd0:armhf (215-17+deb8u5) over (215-17+deb8u3) ...
Processing triggers for man-db ( ...
Processing triggers for dbus (1.8.20-0+deb8u1) ...
Setting up libsystemd0:armhf (215-17+deb8u5) ...
Setting up libcgmanager0:armhf (0.33-2+deb8u2) ...
Setting up cgmanager (0.33-2+deb8u2) ...
Setting up systemd-shim (9-1) ...
Setting up systemd (215-17+deb8u5) ...
addgroup: The group `systemd-journal' already exists as a system group. Exiting.
Failed to execute operation: File exists
Setting up libpam-systemd:armhf (215-17+deb8u5) ...
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.19-18+deb8u3) ...

The recipe has us do ‘base files’ yet it finds the newest already there. This is a mild concern:

root@RaPi_Devuan:/home/pi# apt-get install base-files
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
base-files is already the newest version.
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 334 not upgraded.

So it is an insurance step, not usually needed? A changed behaviour of prior steps? A lack of actually getting Devuan? We’ll know when done, maybe…

On the 1 PM hour, starting the ‘dist upgrade’ that they say can take a while. We’ll see on that, too.

365 packages, about 1/3 MB, 1 hour and 20 minutes later, we have:

Setting up libreoffice-sdbc-hsqldb (1:4.3.3-2+rpi4) ...
Setting up libservlet2.5-java (6.0.45+dfsg-1~deb8u1) ...
Setting up libwpd-0.10-10 (0.10.0-2+b1) ...
Setting up lightdm (1.10.3-3+rpi) ...

Configuration file '/etc/lightdm/lightdm.conf'
 ==> Modified (by you or by a script) since installation.
 ==> Package distributor has shipped an updated version.
   What would you like to do about it ?  Your options are:
    Y or I  : install the package maintainer's version
    N or O  : keep your currently-installed version
      D     : show the differences between the versions
      Z     : start a shell to examine the situation
 The default action is to keep your current version.
*** lightdm.conf (Y/I/N/O/D/Z) [default=N] ? 
Setting up lsb-release (4.1+devuan2) ...
Setting up lxinput (0.3.4-1+rpi6) ...

I’m skipping the ‘cleanup’ stage for now (since I can do it later and want to know if this worked).

Depending on your connection speed it could take a while, grab yourself a drink.

Once finished you will be using Devuan GNU/Linux 1.

Do some optional cleaning up:

root@devuan:~# apt-get autoremove --purge

root@devuan:~# apt-get autoclean

The first command will remove any ‘orphaned’ dependencies from your previous install including unwanted configurations for those packages. I highly recommend this because it’s good security practice. The second command clears up all cached packages except for those that are installed on the running system, reclaiming a little disk space.

Now you should simply reboot so that you are using the kernel shipped with Devuan:

After that I did a reboot and all was good.

In Conclusion

Now that Debuan has shipped a 1.0 production release for the Pi this is more of historical interest than practical. Still, it is useful for conversions of some other releases on other boards that do not yet have a supported release and it documents what was the process at the start.

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Obliquity Not Stable – Massive Historic Climate Change

We all know Obliquity (tilt) wanders in a nice little range from about 22 degrees to 24.5 right?

Well, seems it’s not all that stable if you look further back in time.

In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object’s rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane. It differs from orbital inclination.

At an obliquity of zero, the two axes point in the same direction; i.e., the rotational axis is perpendicular to the orbital plane. Earth’s obliquity oscillates between 22.1 and 24.5 degrees on a 41,000-year cycle; the earth’s mean obliquity is currently 23°26′12.9″ (or 23.43693°) and decreasing.

Over the course of an orbit, the obliquity usually does not change considerably, and the orientation of the axis remains the same relative to the background stars. This causes one pole to be directed more toward the Sun on one side of the orbit, and the other pole on the other side—the cause of the seasons on the Earth.

But it wasn’t always like that…

History of the earth’s obliquity
George E.Williams


The evolution of the obliquity of the ecliptic (ε), the Earth’s axial tilt of 23.5°, may have greatly influenced the Earth’s dynamical, climatic and biotic development. For ε > 54°, climatic zonation and zonal surface winds would be reversed, low to equatorial latitudes would be glaciated in preference to high latitudes, and the global seasonal cycle would be greatly amplified. Phanerozoic palaeoclimates were essentially uniformitarian in regard to obliquity, with normal climatic zonation and zonal surface winds, circum-polar glaciation and little seasonal change in low latitudes. Milankovitch-band periodicity in early Palaeozoic evaporites implies ≈ 26.4 ± 2.1°at ∼ 430 Ma, suggesting that the obliquity during most of Phanerozoic time was comparable to the present value. By contrast, the paradoxical Late Proterozoic (∼ 800−600Ma) glacial environment— frigid, strongly seasonal climates, with permafrost and grounded ice-sheets near sea level preferentially in low to equatorial palaeolatitudes—implies glaciation with ε > 54° (assuming a geocentric axial dipolar magnetic field). Palaeotidal data accord with a large obliquity in Late Proterozoic time. Indeed, Proterozoic palaeoclimates in general appear non-uniformitarian with respect to climatic zonation, consistent with ε > 54°.

So it was a couple of degrees more than present max at 26.4 degrees around 439 million years ago, and prior to about 700 million years ago it was in flopped over nearly chaotic range. Golly.

It is postulated here that the primordial Earth acquired an obliquity of ∼ 70° (54° < ε < 90°) from the Moon-producing single giant impact at ∼ 4500Ma (approach velocity ≈ 5–20km/s, impactor/Earth mass-ratio ≈ 0.08−0.14). Secular decrease in ε¯subsequently occurred under the dominant influence of dissipative core-mantle torques. From 4500-650 Ma, ε¯slowly decreased to ≈ 60° (〈ε⋅〉=−0.0009"/cy), ε¯then decreased relatively rapidly from ∼ 60° to ∼ 26° between 650 and 430 Ma ((〈ε⋅〉=−0.0556"/cy)); climatic zonation changed from reverse to normal when ε¯∼ 610 Ma, and 〈ε˙〉and the rate of amelioration of global seasonality were maxima for ε¯= 45°at∼ 550Ma (the precessional rate Ω is maximum when ε= 45°, and ε⋅pvaries as Ω^2 ). Since 430 Ma, 〈ε˙〉has been ≲ −0.0025″/cy and ε¯has remained near its Quaternary range.

The postulated relatively rapid decrease in ε¯between 650 and 430 Ma may partly reflect special conditions at the CMB which caused significant increase in dissipative core-mantle torques at that time. This inflection in the curve of ε¯versus time centred at = ε¯45°also may be partly explained by the function ε⋅p∞ (Ω^2 /ω)(sin2ε), where ω is the Earth's rate of rotation, and other dynamical effects on ε⋅p.

The Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition may record profound change in global state caused by reduction in ε¯through the critical values of 54° and 45°. The postulated flip-over of climatic zonation at ∼ 610 Ma (ε¯= 54°) coincides with the widespread appearance of the Ediacaran metazoans at ∼ 620−590Ma, and the interval of most rapid reduction of obliquity and seasonality at ∼ 550Ma (ε¯= 45°) with the “Cambrian explosion” of biota at 550 ± 20Ma.
These two most spectacular radiations in the history of life thus may mark the passage from an inhospitable global state of reverse climatic zonation and extreme seasonality (the Earth’s Precambrian “Uranian” obliquity state) to a relatively benign state of normal climatic zonation and moderate seasonality.

Further geological, palaeomagnetic and geochronological studies of Precambrian glaciogenic and aeolian deposits can test the predictions of a large obliquity (ε > 54°) and reverse climatic zonation and zonal surface winds during the pre-Ediacaran Precambrian.

Well, doesn’t that make CO2 look like a piker…

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