GHCN Nordic North – Nothing Much to See

Modern Viking Ship

Modern Viking Ship

Orginal image.

While Some Thermometers are Winnowed, Not Much Changes

Having gone through many of the larger single countries of the world, it is time to start looking at the smaller ones. But smaller countries do not have enough thermometers to see trends of movement. Comings and goings, yes, but how far can a thermometer run in, oh, Iceland? For the smaller countries, it makes more sense to look at them as regional groupings. Since we’ve already looked at Canada, Russia, and the USA, the only “gap” in the Northern Polar region is the Norse / Viking area. Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark. I’ve added into this Ireland, Finland, and the UK. This ought to cover that big watery part of the approach to the arctic.

There are cold currents on the Greenland side, and warm currents on the UK side, so an East / West screen might work better here. We will look at the data and see. But for now, the code I’ve put together looks at North / South so we’ll run with that first and catch any east west changes by inspection of station change records. It is also possible that the UK might be a special case (Hadley CRUT being centered there) so as time permits I may peek under the covers at individual countries.

One other note: While we might not find much nefarious with the thermometer changes, this posting does show how you can still find interesting things ‘hidden in the tea leaves’… (Yes, we do find something, but perhaps not we were looking for ;-)

For now, lets go a Viking.

[chiefio@tubularbells analysis]$ cat Therm.by.latLIST.Dec.LAT 
Percentage of Thermometer Records, by Year, across Latitude  Bands 

           Year SP-45    50    55    60    65    70    75    80    85    -NP 
DecLatPct: 1739   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1749   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1759   0.0   0.0   0.0  65.5  34.5   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1769   0.0   0.0  15.2  60.9  23.9   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1779   0.0   0.0  18.2  56.4  25.5   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1789   0.0   0.0  15.6  56.2  28.1   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1799   0.0   0.0  26.7  56.7  16.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1809   0.0   0.0  20.2  50.5  20.2   9.1   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1819   0.0   0.0  18.0  48.6  21.6  11.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1829   0.0   0.0  15.9  44.2  24.6  14.5   0.7   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1839   0.0   0.0  25.1  35.2  27.9  10.6   1.1   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1849   0.0   0.0  25.1  37.7  28.0   2.3   6.9   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1859   0.0   3.8  32.1  32.1  17.5   6.0   8.5   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1869   0.0   2.7  26.0  36.9  17.6  13.0   3.8   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1879   0.0   1.7  28.8  32.5  17.3  16.5   3.2   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1889   0.0   1.4  28.2  33.1  17.9  15.2   4.2   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1899   0.0   1.3  28.6  32.8  18.2  15.0   4.0   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1909   0.0   0.1  27.0  31.9  19.6  16.0   5.3   0.0   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1919   0.0   0.0  27.8  28.0  19.6  16.8   5.6   2.2   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1929   0.0   0.0  27.1  25.5  19.8  17.6   7.3   2.7   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1939   0.0   0.0  29.1  24.7  20.7  15.0   8.0   2.5   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1949   0.0   0.0  29.6  25.2  20.8  14.9   7.0   2.6   0.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1959   0.0   0.0  32.0  19.3  23.2  14.2   6.4   3.8   1.0   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1969   0.0   0.0  37.2  16.8  23.7  13.1   4.7   3.5   0.9   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1979   0.0   0.0  33.0  17.1  26.8  12.8   6.4   3.6   0.3   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1989   0.0   0.0  33.4  18.6  26.1  13.0   5.2   3.1   0.5   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 1999   0.0   0.0  25.8  21.7  29.5  13.8   5.0   3.1   1.2   0.0 100.0
DecLatPct: 2009   0.0   0.0  20.3  22.4  32.2  15.4   4.9   3.3   1.5   0.0 100.0
 
For COUNTRY CODEs: 431 612 614 620 621 634 645 651
[chiefio@tubularbells analysis]$ 

We have the usual diffusion of thermometers in the 1700’s to early 1800’s as people discover this new toy. Then the stabilization that comes just before the World Wars. And contrary to the major land mass countries, we have thermometers moving a bit more north in the later years. The only “odd bit” really is that 1989 to 2009 drop of percentages in the 55N band. Wonder what was done then…

Now you might think this doesn’t mean anything, but context is everything. In the context of what we saw with the USA, Canada, Russia, China, Australia, and to a lesser extent Brazil: The FAILURE to move in most bands is intriguing. Just as I “did the big countries first”; that the “smaller countries” didn’t change, or changed in a different way, implies intent in the other changes. If it were a programatic change (“have on average one thermometer per FOO sq km and no more than BAR.”) you would expect to see it broadly applied. Automated selections generally do not work one country at a time…

So this break with pattern is itself informative of pattern.

Looking a little deeper into the details of the particular years:

           Year SP-45    50    55    60    65    70    75    80    85    -NP 
DecLatPct: 1989   0.0   0.0  33.4  18.6  26.1  13.0   5.2   3.1   0.5   0.0 100.0
 
LAT pct: 1990   0.0   0.0  31.1  19.4  27.0  13.3   5.6   3.1   0.5   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 1991   0.0   0.0  23.3  23.3  30.2  14.0   5.4   3.1   0.8   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 1992   0.0   0.0  23.1  23.1  30.8  13.8   4.6   3.1   1.5   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 1993   0.0   0.0  26.5  22.1  29.4  13.2   4.4   2.9   1.5   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 1994   0.0   0.0  26.5  22.1  29.4  13.2   4.4   2.9   1.5   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 1995   0.0   0.0  23.4  21.9  31.2  14.1   4.7   3.1   1.6   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 1996   0.0   0.0  25.0  21.9  29.7  14.1   4.7   3.1   1.6   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 1997   0.0   0.0  25.0  21.9  29.7  14.1   4.7   3.1   1.6   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 1998   0.0   0.0  23.8  22.2  30.2  14.3   4.8   3.2   1.6   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 1999   0.0   0.0  21.3  23.0  31.1  14.8   4.9   3.3   1.6   0.0 100.0
 
DecLatPct: 1999   0.0   0.0  25.8  21.7  29.5  13.8   5.0   3.1   1.2   0.0 100.0
 
LAT pct: 2000   0.0   0.0  21.7  21.7  31.7  15.0   5.0   3.3   1.7   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 2001   0.0   0.0  21.3  21.3  32.8  14.8   4.9   3.3   1.6   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 2002   0.0   0.0  21.7  21.7  31.7  15.0   5.0   3.3   1.7   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 2003   0.0   0.0  21.7  21.7  31.7  15.0   5.0   3.3   1.7   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 2004   0.0   0.0  22.4  22.4  31.0  15.5   5.2   3.4   0.0   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 2005   0.0   0.0  19.4  24.2  32.3  14.5   4.8   3.2   1.6   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 2006   0.0   0.0  19.4  24.2  32.3  14.5   4.8   3.2   1.6   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 2007   0.0   0.0  19.4  24.2  32.3  14.5   4.8   3.2   1.6   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 2008   0.0   0.0  18.8  21.9  32.8  17.2   4.7   3.1   1.6   0.0 100.0
LAT pct: 2009   0.0   0.0  17.7  21.0  33.9  17.7   4.8   3.2   1.6   0.0 100.0
 
DecLatPct:2009   0.0   0.0  20.3  22.4  32.2  15.4   4.9   3.3   1.5   0.0 100.0
 
For COUNTRY CODEs: 431 612 614 620 621 634 645 651
[chiefio@tubularbells analysis]$ 

Odd. That 55N band just slowly melts away, while we get a “melt up” in the 70N band. Not a whole lot North of 65 to 70N. Aggregates have a different feel to them.

And if we look at the thermometer counts in those years we have:

Temperature and Thermometer Count, by year

Temperature and Thermometer Count, by year

Not much to see. I would have expected something more going on.


Thermometer Records, Average of Monthly Data and Yearly Average
by Year Across Month, with a count of thermometer records in that year 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
YEAR  JAN  FEB  MAR  APR  MAY  JUN JULY  AUG SEPT  OCT  NOV  DEC  YR COUNT
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
1989  0.9  0.0  1.1  3.3  8.3 11.8 14.0 12.8 10.0  6.1  2.4 -1.2  5.8  76
1990 -0.1  1.6  1.5  3.9  8.5 11.6 13.6 13.8  9.2  6.5  1.6  0.3  6.0  74
1991 -1.8 -2.9  0.8  2.9  6.7 10.0 14.2 13.8  9.4  5.1  2.1  0.0  5.0  67
1992 -0.4 -0.7  0.3  2.3  8.7 12.5 12.9 12.0  9.6  2.4  0.9 -0.1  5.0  64
1993 -1.4 -1.1 -0.1  3.4  8.2 10.3 12.8 11.8  8.2  4.0  0.9 -2.3  4.6  67
1994 -2.6 -4.1  0.0  3.7  7.0 10.5 14.7 13.0  9.1  4.9  2.3 -0.1  4.9  67
1995 -1.9 -0.6 -0.4  3.1  7.1 11.9 13.6 13.7  9.5  7.2  0.8 -3.4  5.0  63
1996 -1.3 -3.9  0.1  3.4  5.9 10.8 12.6 13.7  9.4  6.4  1.3 -2.4  4.7  63
1997 -2.4 -1.1  0.8  2.6  6.9 11.6 14.2 14.7 10.3  4.9  2.1  0.0  5.4  63
1998 -0.9 -1.6 -0.5  2.5  7.7 10.7 12.9 12.2  9.9  5.1  0.4 -0.6  4.8  62
1999 -2.4 -2.6  0.2  4.0  7.1 11.6 13.9 12.4 11.0  5.9  2.8 -1.8  5.2  60
2000 -1.0 -1.0  0.0  3.2  8.0 10.9 13.1 12.7  9.7  6.8  2.9  0.0  5.4  60
2001 -1.1 -3.5 -2.4  2.6  7.5 11.0 13.9 13.0 10.0  7.0  1.4 -1.9  4.8  60
2002 -1.1 -1.0  0.0  4.1  8.5 12.2 13.8 14.3 10.1  4.4  1.0 -1.8  5.4  59
2003 -3.8 -1.4  1.0  3.6  7.7 11.7 15.3 14.1 10.4  4.9  3.3 -0.2  5.6  59
2004 -2.0 -1.6  1.2  4.9  8.1 11.3 13.5 14.1 10.7  5.8  1.5  0.8  5.7  58
2005  0.6 -1.1 -0.3  4.2  7.5 11.8 14.6 13.2 10.3  6.3  2.8 -0.3  5.8  62
2006 -1.1 -2.5 -2.6  3.6  7.9 12.0 14.9 14.1 11.5  6.5  2.5  2.1  5.7  62
2007 -0.7 -2.8  2.4  5.0  7.9 12.3 13.5 13.2  9.3  6.4  1.8  1.1  5.8  62
2008  0.2  0.7 -0.3  3.7  8.5 11.5 14.2 12.7  9.3  5.2  1.7  0.0  5.6  64
 
For Country Codes 431 612 614 620 621 634 645 651
[chiefio@tubularbells analysis]$ 

Not a lot looks to be going on. Yet there WAS a change in thermometer records. (The first chart is “all records”, so each modification flag is a unique record. OK for use in percentage aggregates, but when looking at “thermometer counts over years” I went out of my way to make that a “location specific” count (so a substation would count as a different instrument, but 2 modification flags would not). Might this be ‘mod flag’ related? (FWIW, in forensics you want asymmetrical tools. It is when things are different that you discover / learn things…)

So I took a look at what were the exact station changes. I found that the “difference listing” was 150 records. Hmmm…. 143 were deletions. 7 were added. (Though really, one of each was just a station changing it’s name). Here is the result of looking at what stations enter, and exit, between 1989 and 2009:

[chiefio@tubularbells analysis]$ cat LIST.diff.198920009 
- 43104220000 EGEDESMINDE                     68.70  -52.75   41   20R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
- 43104220000 EGEDESMINDE                     68.70  -52.75   41   20R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
- 43104250000 GODTHAB NUUK                    64.17  -51.75   70    0R   -9MVxxCO 1A-9TUNDRA          B   17
- 43104250000 GODTHAB NUUK                    64.17  -51.75   70    0R   -9MVxxCO 1A-9TUNDRA          B   17
- 43104320000 DANMARKSHAVN                    76.77  -18.67   12  265R   -9FLxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
- 43104320000 DANMARKSHAVN                    76.77  -18.67   12  265R   -9FLxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
- 43104339001 KAP TOBIN                       70.40  -22.00   41   60R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
- 43104339001 KAP TOBIN                       70.40  -22.00   41   60R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
- 43104360000 ANGMAGSSALIK                    65.60  -37.63   52  275R   -9MVxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
- 43104360000 ANGMAGSSALIK                    65.60  -37.63   52  275R   -9MVxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
- 43104390000 PRINS CHRISTI                   60.05  -43.17   74    0R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9TUNDRA          A    0
- 43104390000 PRINS CHRISTI                   60.05  -43.17   74    0R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9TUNDRA          A    0
- 61206030000 ALBORG                          57.10    9.87   13   10U  155FLxxCO30A 5WARM CROPS      C   13
- 61206190000 RONNE                           55.07   14.75   16   81S   15FLxxCO 1A 3WATER           A    0
- 61402836000 SODANKYLA                       67.37   26.65  179  191R   -9FLFOno-9A-9MAIN TAIGA      A    0
- 61402836000 SODANKYLA                       67.37   26.65  179  191R   -9FLFOno-9A-9MAIN TAIGA      A    0
- 61402869000 KUUSAMO                         65.97   29.18  263  276R   -9FLFOLA-9A-9MAIN TAIGA      C   33
- 61402875000 OULU                            64.93   25.37   15   16U  103FLxxCO 2A 5MAIN TAIGA      C   22
- 61402897000 KAJAANI                         64.28   27.68  136  153S   21FLxxLA-9A 5MAIN TAIGA      C   18
- 61402897000 KAJAANI                         64.28   27.68  136  153S   21FLxxLA-9A 5MAIN TAIGA      C   18
- 61402912000 VAASA                           63.10   21.58   14   16U   54FLxxCO 5A 5WATER           C   70
- 61402912000 VAASA                           63.10   21.58   14   16U   54FLxxCO 5A 5WATER           C   70
- 61402912000 VAASA                           63.10   21.58   14   16U   54FLxxCO 5A 5WATER           C   70
- 61402929000 JOENSUU                         62.67   29.63  117   93R   -9HIMALA-9A-9MAIN TAIGA      C   21
- 61402935000 JYVASKYLA                       62.40   25.68  145  136R   -9HIxxno-9A-9COOL MIXED      B   19
- 61402935000 JYVASKYLA                       62.40   25.68  145  136R   -9HIxxno-9A-9COOL MIXED      B   19
- 61402958000 LAPPEENRANTA                    61.05   28.20  115   85U   53FLxxLA-9x-9COOL FOR./FIELD C   57
- 61402963000 JOKIOINEN                       60.82   23.50  103  108R   -9HIFOno-9x-9COOL CROPS      B   24
- 61402963000 JOKIOINEN                       60.82   23.50  103  108R   -9HIFOno-9x-9COOL CROPS      B   24
- 61402972000 TURKU                           60.52   22.27   59   35U  217FLxxCO10A 5WATER           C   57
- 61402972000 TURKU                           60.52   22.27   59   35U  217FLxxCO10A 5WATER           C   57
- 61402974000 HELSINKI/SEUTULA                60.30   25.00   58   33U  794FLxxCO 1x-9COOL CROPS      C   96
- 61402974000 HELSINKI/SEUTULA                60.30   25.00   58   33U  794FLxxCO 1x-9COOL CROPS      C   96
- 62004018000 KEFLAVIKURFLU                   63.97  -22.60   54    6R   -9HIxxCO 3A-9WATER           C   13
---
+ 62004013000 STYKKISHOLMUR                   65.08  -22.73    8  118R   -9HIxxCO 1A-9TUNDRA          B   23
- 62004018000 KEFLAVIKURFLU                   63.97  -22.60   54    6R   -9HIxxCO 3A-9WATER           C   13
- 62004018000 KEFLAVIKURFLU                   63.97  -22.60   54    6R   -9HIxxCO 3A-9WATER           C   13
- 62004030000 REYKJAVIK                       64.13  -21.90   53   54U   98HIxxCO 1A 1COOL GRASS/SHRUBC   77
- 62004030000 REYKJAVIK                       64.13  -21.90   53   54U   98HIxxCO 1A 1COOL GRASS/SHRUBC   77
- 62004063000 AKUREYRI                        65.68  -18.08   27  101S   11MVxxCO 1x-9TUNDRA          C   23
- 62004063000 AKUREYRI                        65.68  -18.08   27  101S   11MVxxCO 1x-9TUNDRA          C   23
---
+ 62004048000 VESTMANNAEYJA                   63.40  -20.28  124    0R   -9HIxxCO 1A-9WATER           A    0
- 62004082000 HOFN I HORNAFIRDI/HOLAR IC      64.30  -15.20    2   91R   -9MVxxCO 1A-9WATER           A   11
- 62004082000 HOFN I HORNAFIRDI/HOLAR IC      64.30  -15.20    2   91R   -9MVxxCO 1A-9WATER           A   11
- 62103952000 ROCHES POINT                    51.80   -8.25   41   16R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WARM CROPS      B    0
- 62103953000 VALENTIA OBSE                   51.93  -10.25   14   47R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
- 62103953000 VALENTIA OBSE                   51.93  -10.25   14   47R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
- 62103953000 VALENTIA OBSE                   51.93  -10.25   14   47R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
- 62103953000 VALENTIA OBSE                   51.93  -10.25   14   47R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
- 62103955000 CORK AIRPORT                    51.85   -8.48  162   82U  134HIxxCO15A 3WARM CROPS      C   12
- 62103955000 CORK AIRPORT                    51.85   -8.48  162   82U  134HIxxCO15A 3WARM CROPS      C   12
- 62103955000 CORK AIRPORT                    51.85   -8.48  162   82U  134HIxxCO15A 3WARM CROPS      C   12
- 62103957000 ROSSLARE                        52.25   -6.33   25    2R   -9FLxxCO 1x-9WATER           B   11
- 62103957000 ROSSLARE                        52.25   -6.33   25    2R   -9FLxxCO 1x-9WATER           B   11
- 62103957000 ROSSLARE                        52.25   -6.33   25    2R   -9FLxxCO 1x-9WATER           B   11
- 62103960000 KILKENNY                        52.67   -7.27   64   94S   13HIxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS      C   20
- 62103960000 KILKENNY                        52.67   -7.27   64   94S   13HIxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS      C   20
- 62103960000 KILKENNY                        52.67   -7.27   64   94S   13HIxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS      C   20
- 62103962000 SHANNON AIRPO                   52.70   -8.92   20   14R   -9FLxxCO 1A-9WARM CROPS      B   12
- 62103962000 SHANNON AIRPO                   52.70   -8.92   20   14R   -9FLxxCO 1A-9WARM CROPS      B   12
- 62103962000 SHANNON AIRPO                   52.70   -8.92   20   14R   -9FLxxCO 1A-9WARM CROPS      B   12
- 62103962000 SHANNON AIRPO                   52.70   -8.92   20   14R   -9FLxxCO 1A-9WARM CROPS      B   12
- 62103964001 GALWAY                          53.28   -9.02   18   20S   29FLxxCO 1x-9WARM CROPS      C   15
- 62103965000 BIRR                            53.08   -7.88   72   80R   -9FLxxno-9A-9WARM CROPS      A    0
- 62103965000 BIRR                            53.08   -7.88   72   80R   -9FLxxno-9A-9WARM CROPS      A    0
- 62103965000 BIRR                            53.08   -7.88   72   80R   -9FLxxno-9A-9WARM CROPS      A    0
- 62103969000 DUBLIN AIRPOR                   53.43   -6.25   85   52U  680FLxxCO10A 3WARM CROPS      C   33
---
+ 62103967000 CASEMENT AERO                   53.30   -6.43   93  137U  680HIxxCO17A 3WARM CROPS      C   24
- 62103969000 DUBLIN AIRPOR                   53.43   -6.25   85   52U  680FLxxCO10A 3WARM CROPS      C   33
- 62103969000 DUBLIN AIRPOR                   53.43   -6.25   85   52U  680FLxxCO10A 3WARM CROPS      C   33
- 62103970000 CLAREMORRIS                     53.72   -8.98   69   78R   -9FLxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS      B    7
- 62103970000 CLAREMORRIS                     53.72   -8.98   69   78R   -9FLxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS      B    7
- 62103970000 CLAREMORRIS                     53.72   -8.98   69   78R   -9FLxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS      B    7
- 62103971000 MULLINGAR                       53.53   -7.37  104  100R   -9FLxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS      C   10
- 62103974000 CLONES                          54.18   -7.23   89   94R   -9HIxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS      A    0
- 62103974000 CLONES                          54.18   -7.23   89   94R   -9HIxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS      A    0
- 62103974000 CLONES                          54.18   -7.23   89   94R   -9HIxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS      A    0
- 62103976000 BELMULLET                       54.23  -10.00   10   19R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WARM CROPS      A    6
- 62103976000 BELMULLET                       54.23  -10.00   10   19R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WARM CROPS      A    6
- 62103976000 BELMULLET                       54.23  -10.00   10   19R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WARM CROPS      A    6
- 62103980000 MALIN HEAD                      55.37   -7.33   25   13R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WARM CROPS      A    0
- 62103980000 MALIN HEAD                      55.37   -7.33   25   13R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WARM CROPS      A    0
- 62103980000 MALIN HEAD                      55.37   -7.33   25   13R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WARM CROPS      A    0
- 63401001000 JAN MAYEN                       70.93   -8.67    9    0R   -9MVxxCO 1A-9WATER           A    0
- 63401001000 JAN MAYEN                       70.93   -8.67    9    0R   -9MVxxCO 1A-9WATER           A    0
- 63401008000 SVALBARD LUFT                   78.25   15.47   29    0R   -9MVxxCO 1A-9POLAR DESERT    A    0
- 63401008000 SVALBARD LUFT                   78.25   15.47   29    0R   -9MVxxCO 1A-9POLAR DESERT    A    0
- 63401025000 TROMO/SKATTO        NORWAY      69.50   19.00   11  132S   43MVxxCO 1x-9TUNDRA          A    0
- 63401025000 TROMO/SKATTO        NORWAY      69.50   19.00   11  132S   43MVxxCO 1x-9TUNDRA          A    0
- 63401028000 BJORNOYA                        74.52   19.02   16   19R   -9FLxxCO 2A-9WATER           A    0
- 63401028000 BJORNOYA                        74.52   19.02   16   19R   -9FLxxCO 2A-9WATER           A    0
- 63401098000 VARDO                           70.37   31.10   15    0R   -9FLxxCO 1x-9WATER           B    9
- 63401098000 VARDO                           70.37   31.10   15    0R   -9FLxxCO 1x-9WATER           B    9
---
+ 63401065000 KARASJOK                        69.47   25.50  133  324R   -9HIFOno-9x-9WOODED TUNDRA   B   18
- 63401152000 BODO VI                         67.27   14.37   13    5S   31HIxxCO 1A 1WATER           C   25
- 63401152000 BODO VI                         67.27   14.37   13    5S   31HIxxCO 1A 1WATER           C   25
---
+ 63401212000 ONA II                          62.87    6.53   15    0R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
- 63401241000 ORLAND III                      63.70    9.60    7    9R   -9HIxxCO 1A-9WATER           B    8
- 63401241000 ORLAND III                      63.70    9.60    7    9R   -9HIxxCO 1A-9WATER           B    8
- 63401288000 ROROS                           62.57   11.38  630  873R   -9MVxxno-9A-9MAIN TAIGA      C   14
- 63401384000 OSLO/GARDERMO                   60.20   11.08  204  206R   -9MVxxno-9A-9MAIN TAIGA      B   55
- 63401384000 OSLO/GARDERMO                   60.20   11.08  204  206R   -9MVxxno-9A-9MAIN TAIGA      B   55
- 63401415000 STAVANGER/SOL                   58.88    5.63    9   33U   87HIxxCO 4A 5WARM CONIFER    C   29
- 63401415000 STAVANGER/SOL                   58.88    5.63    9   33U   87HIxxCO 4A 5WARM CONIFER    C   29
---
+ 63401403000 UTSIRA FYR                      59.30    4.88   56    0R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
+ 63401465000 TORUNGEN FYR                    58.40    8.80   15    5R   -9FLxxCO 1x-9WATER           B    0
- 64502080000 KARESUANDO                      68.45   22.50  327  371R   -9FLFOno-9x-9WOODED TUNDRA   B   12
- 64502080000 KARESUANDO                      68.45   22.50  327  371R   -9FLFOno-9x-9WOODED TUNDRA   B   12
- 64502196000 HAPARANDA                       65.83   24.15    6    5R   -9FLxxCO 3x-9COASTAL EDGES   C   41
- 64502196000 HAPARANDA                       65.83   24.15    6    5R   -9FLxxCO 3x-9COASTAL EDGES   C   41
- 64502226000 OSTERSUND/FRO                   63.18   14.50  370  317S   14HIxxLA-9A 8MAIN TAIGA      B   22
- 64502226000 OSTERSUND/FRO                   63.18   14.50  370  317S   14HIxxLA-9A 8MAIN TAIGA      B   22
- 64502361001 HARNOSAND           SWEDEN      62.60   18.00    8   18S   19HIxxCO 5x-9WATER           A    7
- 64502418000 KARLSTAD FLYG                   59.37   13.47   55   55U   51HIxxLA-9A 1WATER           C   38
- 64502418000 KARLSTAD FLYG                   59.37   13.47   55   55U   51HIxxLA-9A 1WATER           C   38
- 64502418000 KARLSTAD FLYG                   59.37   13.47   55   55U   51HIxxLA-9A 1WATER           C   38
- 64502464000 STOCKHOLM                       59.33   18.05   52   13U 1357FLxxCO10x-9WATER           C  120
- 64502464000 STOCKHOLM                       59.33   18.05   52   13U 1357FLxxCO10x-9WATER           C  120
- 64502464000 STOCKHOLM                       59.33   18.05   52   13U 1357FLxxCO10x-9WATER           C  120
- 64502512000 GOTEBORG/SAVE                   57.78   11.88   53   41U  691FLxxCO 7A 2WATER           C   36
- 64502512000 GOTEBORG/SAVE                   57.78   11.88   53   41U  691FLxxCO 7A 2WATER           C   36
- 64502512000 GOTEBORG/SAVE                   57.78   11.88   53   41U  691FLxxCO 7A 2WATER           C   36
- 64502550000 JONKOPING FLY                   57.77   14.08  232  183U  131HIxxno-9A 5COOL MIXED      C   24
- 64502550000 JONKOPING FLY                   57.77   14.08  232  183U  131HIxxno-9A 5COOL MIXED      C   24
- 64502590000 VISBY AIRPORT       SWEDEN      57.67   18.35   47   18S   20FLxxCO 1x-9WATER           B   17
- 64502590000 VISBY AIRPORT       SWEDEN      57.67   18.35   47   18S   20FLxxCO 1x-9WATER           B   17
- 65103005000 LERWICK                         60.13   -1.18   84   52R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
- 65103026000 STORNOWAY                       58.22   -6.32   13    2R   -9FLxxCO 1A-9WARM GRASS/SHRUBB    7
- 65103091000 ABERDEEN/DYCE                   57.20   -2.22   65   98U  210HIxxCO 5A 3WARM CROPS      C   26
- 65103100000 TIREE                           56.50   -6.88   12    4R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
- 65103160000 EDINBURGH AIR                   55.95   -3.35   41   51U  470HIxxCO 4A 2WARM GRASS/SHRUBC   29
- 65103160000 EDINBURGH AIR                   55.95   -3.35   41   51U  470HIxxCO 4A 2WARM GRASS/SHRUBC   29
- 65103162000 ESKDALEMUIR                     55.32   -3.20  242  293R   -9HIxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS      A    0
- 65103162000 ESKDALEMUIR                     55.32   -3.20  242  293R   -9HIxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS      A    0
- 65103257000 LEEMING                         54.30   -1.53   40   42R   -9HIxxno-9A-9WARM CROPS      B    9
- 65103302000 VALLEY                          53.25   -4.53   11   33R   -9HIxxCO 1A-9WARM CROPS      B    7
- 65103334000 MANCHESTER AI                   53.35   -2.27   78   50U  490FLxxno-9A 1HEATHS, MOORS   C   22
- 65103334000 MANCHESTER AI                   53.35   -2.27   78   50U  490FLxxno-9A 1HEATHS, MOORS   C   22
- 65103377000 WADDINGTON                      53.17   -0.52   70   56U   74FLxxno-9A 3HEATHS, MOORS   C   12
- 65103534000 BIRMINGHAM/AI                   52.45   -1.73   99  112U 1059HIxxno-9A 1WARM CROPS      C   25
- 65103534000 BIRMINGHAM/AI                   52.45   -1.73   99  112U 1059HIxxno-9A 1WARM CROPS      C   25
- 65103715000 GLAMORGAN/RHOUSE AP             51.40   -3.40   67   26U  282HIxxCO 2A 3WATER           B   13
- 65103715000 GLAMORGAN/RHOUSE AP             51.40   -3.40   67   26U  282HIxxCO 2A 3WATER           B   13
- 65103776000 LONDON/GATWIC                   51.15   -0.18   62   73U12332HIxxno-9A15WARM CROPS      C   29
- 65103776000 LONDON/GATWIC                   51.15   -0.18   62   73U12332HIxxno-9A15WARM CROPS      C   29
- 65103827000 PLYMOUTH WC                     50.35   -4.12   50   76U  259HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           C   19
- 65103827000 PLYMOUTH WC                     50.35   -4.12   50   76U  259HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           C   19
- 65103862000 BOURNEMOUTH A                   50.78   -1.83   11   41U  144HIxxCO 5A 2WARM CROPS      C   14
- 65103917000 BELFAST/ALDER                   54.65   -6.22   81   68U  552FLxxCO20A15WARM CROPS      B   13
- 65103917000 BELFAST/ALDER                   54.65   -6.22   81   68U  552FLxxCO20A15WARM CROPS      B   13
[chiefio@tubularbells analysis]$ 

Gee, a lot of these look like duplicates. Well, these records only use an 8 digit Station ID (they come from the v2.inv file) while the thermometer records use the 9 digit with mod flag. I went through the exercise of looking at the actual temperature records added and deleted and yup, sure enough, each “duplicate” has a different modification flag.

So what we found in this particular exercise was that the Nordic / UK / Irish area were changing their equipment and / or procedures a lot.

While we have not found any “brute force” deletion impact, we know that to really have faith in this part of the record, we need to ask what were all these modification changes about? Was it reasonable, or was equipment properly calibrated during a change of equipment, or was someone capriciously changing how records were “adjusted”? Outside the scope of what I am doing here, but still interesting. And a nice example of how to discover the unexpected by following the data where they lead and checking out the “odd bit” without preconceived notions of where you will end up.

I ran that list through the Linux / Unix tool “uniq” that gives you one unique record for each duplicate, then counted up the lines. (There are 7 dashed lines left in to make it easy to find the added stations). The tool “wc” (for word count, but with an “l” flag it counts lines… don’t ask… But “cat” stands for “conCATenate and print…) tells us we have 85 lines. Take out the 7 dashes, we have 78 total changes. One was a name change, so 2 records out. 76. There were 6 net additions (modulo the name change), so that ought to leave 70 actual station deletions. Here’s the detail, in “ragged right”:

$ cat LIST.diff.198920009 | uniq |wc -l
     85
$ cat LIST.diff.198920009 | uniq > LIST.udiff.19892009
$ cat LIST.udiff.19892009 

– 43104220000 EGEDESMINDE 68.70 -52.75 41 20R -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER A 0
– 43104250000 GODTHAB NUUK 64.17 -51.75 70 0R -9MVxxCO 1A-9TUNDRA B 17
– 43104320000 DANMARKSHAVN 76.77 -18.67 12 265R -9FLxxCO 1x-9WATER A 0
– 43104339001 KAP TOBIN 70.40 -22.00 41 60R -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER A 0
– 43104360000 ANGMAGSSALIK 65.60 -37.63 52 275R -9MVxxCO 1x-9WATER A 0
– 43104390000 PRINS CHRISTI 60.05 -43.17 74 0R -9HIxxCO 1x-9TUNDRA A 0
– 61206030000 ALBORG 57.10 9.87 13 10U 155FLxxCO30A 5WARM CROPS C 13
– 61206190000 RONNE 55.07 14.75 16 81S 15FLxxCO 1A 3WATER A 0
– 61402836000 SODANKYLA 67.37 26.65 179 191R -9FLFOno-9A-9MAIN TAIGA A 0
– 61402869000 KUUSAMO 65.97 29.18 263 276R -9FLFOLA-9A-9MAIN TAIGA C 33
– 61402875000 OULU 64.93 25.37 15 16U 103FLxxCO 2A 5MAIN TAIGA C 22
– 61402897000 KAJAANI 64.28 27.68 136 153S 21FLxxLA-9A 5MAIN TAIGA C 18
– 61402912000 VAASA 63.10 21.58 14 16U 54FLxxCO 5A 5WATER C 70
– 61402929000 JOENSUU 62.67 29.63 117 93R -9HIMALA-9A-9MAIN TAIGA C 21
– 61402935000 JYVASKYLA 62.40 25.68 145 136R -9HIxxno-9A-9COOL MIXED B 19
– 61402958000 LAPPEENRANTA 61.05 28.20 115 85U 53FLxxLA-9x-9COOL FOR./FIELD C 57
– 61402963000 JOKIOINEN 60.82 23.50 103 108R -9HIFOno-9x-9COOL CROPS B 24
– 61402972000 TURKU 60.52 22.27 59 35U 217FLxxCO10A 5WATER C 57
– 61402974000 HELSINKI/SEUTULA 60.30 25.00 58 33U 794FLxxCO 1x-9COOL CROPS C 96
– 62004018000 KEFLAVIKURFLU 63.97 -22.60 54 6R -9HIxxCO 3A-9WATER C 13

+ 62004013000 STYKKISHOLMUR 65.08 -22.73 8 118R -9HIxxCO 1A-9TUNDRA B 23
– 62004030000 REYKJAVIK 64.13 -21.90 53 54U 98HIxxCO 1A 1COOL GRASS/SHRUBC 77
– 62004063000 AKUREYRI 65.68 -18.08 27 101S 11MVxxCO 1x-9TUNDRA C 23

+ 62004048000 VESTMANNAEYJA 63.40 -20.28 124 0R -9HIxxCO 1A-9WATER A 0
– 62004082000 HOFN I HORNAFIRDI/HOLAR IC 64.30 -15.20 2 91R -9MVxxCO 1A-9WATER A 11
– 62103952000 ROCHES POINT 51.80 -8.25 41 16R -9HIxxCO 1x-9WARM CROPS B 0
– 62103953000 VALENTIA OBSE 51.93 -10.25 14 47R -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER A 0
– 62103955000 CORK AIRPORT 51.85 -8.48 162 82U 134HIxxCO15A 3WARM CROPS C 12
– 62103957000 ROSSLARE 52.25 -6.33 25 2R -9FLxxCO 1x-9WATER B 11
– 62103960000 KILKENNY 52.67 -7.27 64 94S 13HIxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS C 20
– 62103962000 SHANNON AIRPO 52.70 -8.92 20 14R -9FLxxCO 1A-9WARM CROPS B 12
– 62103964001 GALWAY 53.28 -9.02 18 20S 29FLxxCO 1x-9WARM CROPS C 15
– 62103965000 BIRR 53.08 -7.88 72 80R -9FLxxno-9A-9WARM CROPS A 0
– 62103969000 DUBLIN AIRPOR 53.43 -6.25 85 52U 680FLxxCO10A 3WARM CROPS C 33

+ 62103967000 CASEMENT AERO 53.30 -6.43 93 137U 680HIxxCO17A 3WARM CROPS C 24
– 62103970000 CLAREMORRIS 53.72 -8.98 69 78R -9FLxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS B 7
– 62103971000 MULLINGAR 53.53 -7.37 104 100R -9FLxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS C 10
– 62103974000 CLONES 54.18 -7.23 89 94R -9HIxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS A 0
– 62103976000 BELMULLET 54.23 -10.00 10 19R -9HIxxCO 1x-9WARM CROPS A 6
– 62103980000 MALIN HEAD 55.37 -7.33 25 13R -9HIxxCO 1x-9WARM CROPS A 0
– 63401001000 JAN MAYEN 70.93 -8.67 9 0R -9MVxxCO 1A-9WATER A 0
– 63401008000 SVALBARD LUFT 78.25 15.47 29 0R -9MVxxCO 1A-9POLAR DESERT A 0
– 63401025000 TROMO/SKATTO NORWAY 69.50 19.00 11 132S 43MVxxCO 1x-9TUNDRA A 0
– 63401028000 BJORNOYA 74.52 19.02 16 19R -9FLxxCO 2A-9WATER A 0
– 63401098000 VARDO 70.37 31.10 15 0R -9FLxxCO 1x-9WATER B 9

+ 63401065000 KARASJOK 69.47 25.50 133 324R -9HIFOno-9x-9WOODED TUNDRA B 18
– 63401152000 BODO VI 67.27 14.37 13 5S 31HIxxCO 1A 1WATER C 25

+ 63401212000 ONA II 62.87 6.53 15 0R -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER A 0
– 63401241000 ORLAND III 63.70 9.60 7 9R -9HIxxCO 1A-9WATER B 8
– 63401288000 ROROS 62.57 11.38 630 873R -9MVxxno-9A-9MAIN TAIGA C 14
– 63401384000 OSLO/GARDERMO 60.20 11.08 204 206R -9MVxxno-9A-9MAIN TAIGA B 55
– 63401415000 STAVANGER/SOL 58.88 5.63 9 33U 87HIxxCO 4A 5WARM CONIFER C 29

+ 63401403000 UTSIRA FYR 59.30 4.88 56 0R -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER A 0
+ 63401465000 TORUNGEN FYR 58.40 8.80 15 5R -9FLxxCO 1x-9WATER B 0
– 64502080000 KARESUANDO 68.45 22.50 327 371R -9FLFOno-9x-9WOODED TUNDRA B 12
– 64502196000 HAPARANDA 65.83 24.15 6 5R -9FLxxCO 3x-9COASTAL EDGES C 41
– 64502226000 OSTERSUND/FRO 63.18 14.50 370 317S 14HIxxLA-9A 8MAIN TAIGA B 22
– 64502361001 HARNOSAND SWEDEN 62.60 18.00 8 18S 19HIxxCO 5x-9WATER A 7
– 64502418000 KARLSTAD FLYG 59.37 13.47 55 55U 51HIxxLA-9A 1WATER C 38
– 64502464000 STOCKHOLM 59.33 18.05 52 13U 1357FLxxCO10x-9WATER C 120
– 64502512000 GOTEBORG/SAVE 57.78 11.88 53 41U 691FLxxCO 7A 2WATER C 36
– 64502550000 JONKOPING FLY 57.77 14.08 232 183U 131HIxxno-9A 5COOL MIXED C 24
– 64502590000 VISBY AIRPORT SWEDEN 57.67 18.35 47 18S 20FLxxCO 1x-9WATER B 17
– 65103005000 LERWICK 60.13 -1.18 84 52R -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER A 0
– 65103026000 STORNOWAY 58.22 -6.32 13 2R -9FLxxCO 1A-9WARM GRASS/SHRUBB 7
– 65103091000 ABERDEEN/DYCE 57.20 -2.22 65 98U 210HIxxCO 5A 3WARM CROPS C 26
– 65103100000 TIREE 56.50 -6.88 12 4R -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER A 0
– 65103160000 EDINBURGH AIR 55.95 -3.35 41 51U 470HIxxCO 4A 2WARM GRASS/SHRUBC 29
– 65103162000 ESKDALEMUIR 55.32 -3.20 242 293R -9HIxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS A 0
– 65103257000 LEEMING 54.30 -1.53 40 42R -9HIxxno-9A-9WARM CROPS B 9
– 65103302000 VALLEY 53.25 -4.53 11 33R -9HIxxCO 1A-9WARM CROPS B 7
– 65103334000 MANCHESTER AI 53.35 -2.27 78 50U 490FLxxno-9A 1HEATHS, MOORS C 22
– 65103377000 WADDINGTON 53.17 -0.52 70 56U 74FLxxno-9A 3HEATHS, MOORS C 12
– 65103534000 BIRMINGHAM/AI 52.45 -1.73 99 112U 1059HIxxno-9A 1WARM CROPS C 25
– 65103715000 GLAMORGAN/RHOUSE AP 51.40 -3.40 67 26U 282HIxxCO 2A 3WATER B 13
– 65103776000 LONDON/GATWIC 51.15 -0.18 62 73U12332HIxxno-9A15WARM CROPS C 29
– 65103827000 PLYMOUTH WC 50.35 -4.12 50 76U 259HIxxCO 1x-9WATER C 19
– 65103862000 BOURNEMOUTH A 50.78 -1.83 11 41U 144HIxxCO 5A 2WARM CROPS C 14
– 65103917000 BELFAST/ALDER 54.65 -6.22 81 68U 552FLxxCO20A15WARM CROPS B 13
[chiefio@tubularbells analysis]$

At this point, I don’t really know if it means anything. But it is clear that folks have been very busy mucking around with the equipment and taking some sites out of the record entirely. It may well be that some station records span the changes so you might have 3 mod flags deleted, counted as one unique deletion here, but with a surviving mod flag of a persistent record that spanned this interval at that location. This is how a station ends up being both “kept” and “deleted”. Comparison of the above “deleted station records” with the “used in 2009” list at the bottom of this posting will show if these “deletions” are or are not stations, or just mod flags.

The Temperature History of The Viking Area

I’m just not seeing any evidence of persistent warming in this block of data.

We go from 5C – 6C at that start to 5.xC in the last decade. Trend? WHAT trend?

[chiefio@tubularbells analysis]$ cat Temps.LIST.yrs.GAT 

Thermometer Records, Average of Monthly Data and Yearly Average
by Year Across Month, with a count of thermometer records in that year 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
YEAR  JAN  FEB  MAR  APR  MAY  JUN JULY  AUG SEPT  OCT  NOV  DEC  YR COUNT
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
1880 -1.0  0.3  1.4  4.5  7.8 11.8 13.9 14.9 12.0  3.5  1.2 -0.9  5.8  65
1881 -4.4 -3.7 -1.5  2.5  7.9 11.3 13.8 12.4 10.4  5.2  4.1  0.9  4.9  64
1882  1.0  0.4  1.8  3.9  8.5 11.8 14.1 13.9 11.0  7.1  0.9 -1.8  6.0  66
1883 -0.6  0.4 -1.0  4.6  8.2 12.5 14.0 13.3 10.8  6.5  3.5  0.6  6.1  66
1884  0.4  0.4  1.7  3.6  7.5 11.5 14.1 14.1 11.9  6.6  1.7 -0.3  6.1  71
1885 -1.4  0.3  0.4  4.0  6.2 10.8 13.9 12.2  9.5  4.2  1.7  0.0  5.2  72
1886 -2.7 -2.3 -0.4  3.7  7.6 11.5 13.6 13.4 10.5  7.4  4.0 -1.8  5.4  72
1887 -0.2  0.4  0.1  3.1  7.6 12.2 14.2 12.9 10.2  4.6  1.4 -1.6  5.4  73
1888 -0.6 -3.2 -3.0  2.0  7.2 11.2 12.4 12.3  9.9  5.1  2.3  1.1  4.7  73
1889 -0.3 -2.4 -0.5  3.6 10.5 14.0 13.5 12.9 10.1  6.7  3.8  0.5  6.0  74
1890  1.3 -0.1  1.7  4.2  9.6 11.7 12.7 13.0 11.7  6.1  2.5 -1.3  6.1  74
1891 -1.9  1.0 -0.7  3.1  7.4 11.8 14.1 12.6 10.9  7.5  2.2  0.7  5.7  74
1892 -2.6 -1.8 -0.4  3.5  7.6 10.9 12.6 12.7 10.0  5.1  3.3 -1.6  4.9  74
1893 -3.3 -2.7  1.6  5.2  8.8 12.5 14.1 14.1  9.6  6.8  1.6  1.2  5.8  74
1894 -0.6  0.0  2.2  6.1  7.7 12.4 14.8 13.1  9.3  5.4  4.2  1.1  6.3  74
1895 -3.4 -4.2  0.1  4.3  9.7 12.7 13.4 13.5 11.6  5.0  3.3  0.0  5.5  75
1896 -0.1  0.5  1.4  4.6  8.8 13.2 14.7 12.7 10.6  5.2  1.5  0.0  6.1  75
1897 -2.5 -0.9  0.6  3.9  8.3 12.2 14.4 14.2 10.0  7.0  3.2  1.0  5.9  75
1898  1.8 -1.1  0.2  4.3  7.5 11.9 13.0 13.3 11.3  7.3  2.9  1.3  6.1  76
1899 -1.0  0.0 -0.4  3.3  7.0 12.3 15.3 13.8 10.3  6.0  4.4 -1.3  5.8  77
1900 -0.8 -3.5 -0.1  3.5  7.1 12.3 14.0 13.3 10.3  6.1  3.2  1.0  5.5  77
1901 -0.7 -2.4 -0.1  4.1  8.6 11.9 15.9 13.8 11.4  7.3  1.5 -1.5  5.8  75
1902 -0.7 -2.5  0.0  3.1  6.1 10.8 12.0 11.7  9.5  5.5  2.6 -0.3  4.8  75
1903 -1.1  1.2  2.2  2.7  7.9 11.1 12.9 12.0 10.3  5.4  2.4  0.3  5.6  75
1904  0.0 -2.5 -0.2  4.2  7.5 11.4 13.8 13.0 10.4  6.4  1.3 -0.3  5.4  73
1905 -1.3 -0.3  1.8  3.0  8.3 12.9 14.6 12.9  9.8  4.0  1.7  1.3  5.7  73
1906  0.1 -1.3 -0.2  3.8  7.9 12.2 13.7 13.3 10.8  6.9  3.6 -0.9  5.8  73
1907 -1.6 -1.4  1.2  3.8  7.1 11.0 12.6 11.7  9.9  7.7  3.0 -0.4  5.4  72
1908 -0.8 -0.2  0.1  3.3  8.0 11.5 14.0 12.8 10.2  8.0  2.1  0.5  5.8  68
1909 -0.3 -1.1 -0.9  3.6  6.9 10.8 12.9 12.9  9.9  7.1  1.0 -0.8  5.2  68
1910 -1.3  0.3  1.7  3.5  8.4 12.0 13.0 13.2 10.3  6.9  0.6  1.4  5.8  68
1911  0.0 -0.6  1.0  3.8  9.6 11.7 14.5 14.8 10.8  5.7  2.6  1.9  6.3  68
1912 -2.0 -2.1  1.4  4.1  7.6 11.5 14.0 11.9  8.8  4.8  1.8  1.2  5.2  69
1913 -1.3  0.0  0.6  4.0  7.9 11.2 13.3 12.8 10.5  6.2  3.7 -0.2  5.7  69
1914 -1.6  0.7  0.0  4.6  6.9 11.6 14.7 13.6 10.1  6.4  2.1  0.1  5.8  69
1915 -1.8 -1.6 -1.3  3.4  7.2 10.8 13.0 12.8  9.7  5.5  0.7 -2.6  4.7  69
1916  0.9 -0.9 -1.1  3.4  7.5 10.3 13.9 13.0  9.6  5.6  3.6 -0.7  5.4  69
1917 -2.6 -2.4 -1.6  0.8  7.3 12.4 13.5 14.1 10.3  4.6  2.4 -1.7  4.8  69
1918 -3.6 -0.5  0.8  3.2  8.7 10.6 13.7 12.9  8.8  6.3  2.7  0.7  5.4  69
1919 -0.7 -3.0 -1.2  2.8  9.2 11.5 13.1 12.2  9.7  4.9 -0.7 -1.0  4.7  68
1920 -1.3  0.3  2.2  4.0  8.5 11.7 13.1 12.1 10.3  6.3  3.2  0.1  5.9  70
1921 -0.3 -0.4  1.8  4.6  8.2 11.1 13.6 12.4  9.8  6.7  0.8  0.9  5.8  71
1922 -1.7 -1.7 -0.3  1.9  7.8 10.9 12.4 11.8  9.2  4.9  2.0  0.6  4.8  71
1923  0.1 -1.3  1.4  2.9  6.1  9.1 13.7 11.7  9.0  5.9  0.4 -1.2  4.8  72
1924 -0.6 -2.4 -1.6  2.1  7.0 10.4 13.3 12.9 10.1  6.7  3.1  2.1  5.3  72
1925  0.9 -0.2 -0.6  3.4  7.7 11.4 14.7 13.0  9.3  5.1  0.2 -2.1  5.2  72
1926 -0.9 -0.6  0.6  4.4  6.8 11.1 14.1 13.1 10.0  3.5  2.2 -0.5  5.3  70
1927 -0.8 -0.2  1.4  2.8  6.3  9.8 14.3 13.5  9.4  5.3  1.0 -2.1  5.1  67
1928 -0.4  0.0  0.8  3.8  7.3  9.7 12.5 12.4  9.6  5.8  2.7 -0.3  5.3  67
1929 -2.1 -3.1  1.9  1.7  7.5 10.2 12.9 12.1 10.5  5.4  2.8  2.2  5.2  68
1930  0.6 -1.0  0.0  4.6  8.0 12.3 13.8 13.4 10.0  6.3  2.0  0.9  5.9  68
1931 -1.1 -1.3 -1.3  3.6  7.9 10.3 13.6 12.4  9.0  5.4  4.1  1.2  5.3  76
1932  1.0  0.6  0.2  2.7  7.5 11.0 13.8 13.5  9.6  4.6  2.3  1.8  5.7  78
1933 -0.5 -1.4  1.2  3.3  7.9 12.6 14.6 13.7 11.1  6.1  2.0 -0.1  5.9  78
1934  0.6  0.0  0.4  3.1  7.5 11.3 14.7 13.3 11.5  6.3  2.4  2.7  6.2  79
1935 -0.4 -0.8  1.0  3.0  6.3 11.1 13.3 13.1  9.5  5.5  3.3 -0.2  5.4  79
1936 -1.6 -2.7  0.2  2.4  8.1 12.0 13.5 13.2 10.1  5.4  2.5  0.9  5.3  79
1937  0.0 -1.7 -1.1  4.6  8.7 11.3 14.1 14.3 10.0  6.8  2.3 -1.2  5.7  78
1938  0.0  0.8  2.7  3.4  6.8 10.6 13.0 13.3 10.6  6.9  4.3  0.7  6.1  75
1939 -1.0  0.7  0.9  3.7  7.6 11.0 13.1 13.9 10.5  5.1  3.2 -1.1  5.6  75
1940 -3.4 -3.0 -0.3  3.3  9.0 12.5 12.7 12.2  9.4  6.2  2.7  0.0  5.1  76
1941 -4.1 -2.5  0.0  2.6  6.5 11.4 14.8 12.4 10.8  6.0  2.7  0.4  5.1  77
1942 -3.9 -3.6 -1.2  3.9  7.2 10.8 12.8 13.1 10.0  6.2  2.6  1.6  5.0  77
1943 -0.9  1.1  2.1  4.8  7.8 11.5 13.4 12.2 10.1  7.1  2.7  1.2  6.1  77
1944  0.5 -0.1  0.7  4.2  7.1 10.6 13.8 13.7  9.7  6.5  2.2  1.1  5.8  77
1945 -2.6  1.1  3.1  5.2  8.1 11.3 14.3 13.8 10.6  7.2  3.5  0.5  6.3  77
1946 -0.2 -0.6  0.6  4.6  7.9 10.7 13.7 12.5 10.3  5.8  2.7  0.4  5.7  79
1947 -1.2 -5.7 -2.8  2.8  8.6 11.8 13.6 14.5 10.7  6.1  1.4 -0.3  5.0  79
1948 -2.2 -1.0  1.6  3.8  7.1 10.4 13.0 11.8  9.5  5.2  2.3  0.5  5.2  81
1949 -1.2 -0.4 -0.8  2.8  6.8 10.8 13.1 12.2 11.3  6.1  2.5  0.0  5.3  92
1950 -1.2 -1.1  1.1  2.9  7.3 11.7 12.9 13.1  9.5  6.0  1.7 -2.0  5.2 103
1951 -3.1 -2.3 -2.4  1.8  6.1 10.4 12.5 13.0 10.4  6.3  2.3 -0.1  4.6 119
1952 -2.7 -2.0 -1.6  3.9  7.7 10.5 12.9 11.9  7.7  4.1  0.0 -1.7  4.2 122
1953 -2.3 -3.1  0.0  2.6  7.8 12.4 13.0 12.8  9.6  6.1  2.9  1.0  5.2 122
1954 -2.5 -3.9 -0.5  2.5  8.1 10.4 12.3 11.9  8.7  5.4  1.4  0.5  4.5 121
1955 -3.6 -4.8 -2.2  2.2  5.6 10.0 13.9 14.0 10.4  4.8  1.5 -2.5  4.1 127
1956 -3.7 -5.1 -0.4  1.3  7.2 10.2 12.6 10.7  9.2  4.6  0.3 -0.1  3.9 117
1957 -0.8 -1.8  0.1  2.8  6.5 10.7 13.6 12.4  8.6  5.6  1.8 -1.3  4.8 118
1958 -3.3 -3.4 -2.8  1.9  6.4 10.5 12.8 12.3 10.5  6.1  2.6 -1.9  4.3 121
1959 -3.8 -0.9  0.8  3.1  7.9 11.5 13.8 13.4  9.8  6.7  2.0 -0.9  5.3 121
1960 -2.7 -3.5 -0.2  3.1  8.6 12.1 13.3 12.6  9.6  4.7  1.7 -1.3  4.8 120
1961 -1.6  0.2  1.4  3.4  7.4 11.9 12.9 12.3 10.4  7.4  2.3 -2.3  5.5 136
1962 -1.2 -1.3 -3.0  3.2  6.8 10.2 12.1 11.4  9.0  6.3  1.7 -2.0  4.4 136
1963 -4.9 -4.8 -1.0  3.2  7.8 11.4 12.4 12.3  9.6  6.3  1.7 -0.8  4.4 135
1964 -0.1 -1.2 -0.3  3.5  8.5 10.7 12.8 12.2  9.6  5.8  2.2 -0.6  5.3 135
1965 -1.9 -1.2 -0.5  3.4  7.0 11.1 11.7 11.9  9.5  6.6 -0.1 -2.1  4.6 132
1966 -4.4 -3.8 -0.7  1.9  7.1 12.5 13.0 12.1  9.5  5.2  1.5 -0.3  4.5 131
1967 -2.6 -0.5  1.0  3.2  6.9 11.0 13.2 12.8 10.3  5.8  2.4 -2.0  5.1 131
1968 -3.5 -3.4 -0.3  3.3  6.1 11.7 12.5 12.8  9.7  5.3  1.3 -0.7  4.6 124
1969 -1.9 -4.6 -2.1  2.4  7.0 11.5 13.5 13.8  9.4  6.8  0.1 -2.0  4.5 123
1970 -3.1 -5.1 -0.9  1.4  7.6 12.6 12.3 12.5  9.4  5.8  0.9 -0.5  4.4 110
1971 -1.9 -1.7 -1.8  2.1  7.3 10.1 13.0 12.1  9.3  5.5  0.0  0.2  4.5  99
1972 -2.1 -1.5  0.0  2.5  7.1 10.5 13.5 12.0  8.8  5.7  1.4  1.7  5.0  98
1973  0.7 -1.7  0.8  2.5  7.1 11.4 13.7 12.4  9.0  4.1  0.2 -1.8  4.9  96
1974  0.6  0.1  1.0  4.1  7.2 11.0 12.4 12.1  9.1  4.7  2.0  1.0  5.4  96
1975 -0.4  0.0  0.0  2.9  7.3 10.6 13.4 13.5  9.4  6.0  2.1 -0.4  5.4  95
1976 -2.7 -1.1 -0.4  2.8  7.8 11.5 13.7 13.4  8.9  5.2  1.9 -1.7  4.9  92
1977 -2.2 -2.2  0.8  2.1  7.3 10.4 12.9 13.0  8.8  6.4  1.7  0.4  5.0  90
1978 -2.5 -4.2 -0.3  2.4  7.9 10.8 12.5 12.2  9.3  6.2  2.6 -2.5  4.5  91
1979 -4.7 -3.8 -0.7  2.4  6.1 11.4 12.7 12.1  9.0  5.5  1.9 -0.3  4.3  88
1980 -2.6 -2.0 -0.9  3.9  7.4 11.7 12.8 12.6 10.4  4.6  0.5 -0.5  4.8  88
1981 -1.2 -1.9 -0.5  3.4  8.4 10.6 13.3 13.1 10.5  5.1  2.4 -3.8  4.9  86
1982 -2.5 -0.3  1.5  4.0  7.4 10.8 13.9 12.8  9.6  6.2  3.0  0.1  5.5  72
1983  0.3 -2.3  0.9  3.1  7.7 11.1 14.4 13.2  9.9  5.8  1.6  0.0  5.5  73
1984 -2.5 -0.5 -0.8  4.2  8.3 11.5 13.4 13.3  9.3  6.5  2.6  1.3  5.5  73
1985 -4.7 -4.1  0.0  2.8  7.4 10.7 13.1 12.2  9.7  6.8  0.2 -1.3  4.4  73
1986 -3.0 -4.0  0.7  2.1  7.8 12.0 13.0 11.1  8.0  6.1  3.1 -1.1  4.7  72
1987 -4.7 -2.4 -1.4  4.0  6.9 10.2 13.0 12.0  9.4  6.3  2.1 -0.2  4.6  75
1988 -1.2 -1.2 -0.4  2.2  8.2 11.9 14.1 12.4  9.9  5.6  0.4 -0.5  5.1  76
1989  0.9  0.0  1.1  3.3  8.3 11.8 14.0 12.8 10.0  6.1  2.4 -1.2  5.8  76
1990 -0.1  1.6  1.5  3.9  8.5 11.6 13.6 13.8  9.2  6.5  1.6  0.3  6.0  74
1991 -1.8 -2.9  0.8  2.9  6.7 10.0 14.2 13.8  9.4  5.1  2.1  0.0  5.0  67
1992 -0.4 -0.7  0.3  2.3  8.7 12.5 12.9 12.0  9.6  2.4  0.9 -0.1  5.0  64
1993 -1.4 -1.1 -0.1  3.4  8.2 10.3 12.8 11.8  8.2  4.0  0.9 -2.3  4.6  67
1994 -2.6 -4.1  0.0  3.7  7.0 10.5 14.7 13.0  9.1  4.9  2.3 -0.1  4.9  67
1995 -1.9 -0.6 -0.4  3.1  7.1 11.9 13.6 13.7  9.5  7.2  0.8 -3.4  5.0  63
1996 -1.3 -3.9  0.1  3.4  5.9 10.8 12.6 13.7  9.4  6.4  1.3 -2.4  4.7  63
1997 -2.4 -1.1  0.8  2.6  6.9 11.6 14.2 14.7 10.3  4.9  2.1  0.0  5.4  63
1998 -0.9 -1.6 -0.5  2.5  7.7 10.7 12.9 12.2  9.9  5.1  0.4 -0.6  4.8  62
1999 -2.4 -2.6  0.2  4.0  7.1 11.6 13.9 12.4 11.0  5.9  2.8 -1.8  5.2  60
2000 -1.0 -1.0  0.0  3.2  8.0 10.9 13.1 12.7  9.7  6.8  2.9  0.0  5.4  60
2001 -1.1 -3.5 -2.4  2.6  7.5 11.0 13.9 13.0 10.0  7.0  1.4 -1.9  4.8  60
2002 -1.1 -1.0  0.0  4.1  8.5 12.2 13.8 14.3 10.1  4.4  1.0 -1.8  5.4  59
2003 -3.8 -1.4  1.0  3.6  7.7 11.7 15.3 14.1 10.4  4.9  3.3 -0.2  5.6  59
2004 -2.0 -1.6  1.2  4.9  8.1 11.3 13.5 14.1 10.7  5.8  1.5  0.8  5.7  58
2005  0.6 -1.1 -0.3  4.2  7.5 11.8 14.6 13.2 10.3  6.3  2.8 -0.3  5.8  62
2006 -1.1 -2.5 -2.6  3.6  7.9 12.0 14.9 14.1 11.5  6.5  2.5  2.1  5.7  62
2007 -0.7 -2.8  2.4  5.0  7.9 12.3 13.5 13.2  9.3  6.4  1.8  1.1  5.8  62
2008  0.2  0.7 -0.3  3.7  8.5 11.5 14.2 12.7  9.3  5.2  1.7  0.0  5.6  64
     -1.7 -1.7  0.0  3.2  7.5 11.3 13.3 12.8  9.8  5.8  1.9 -0.4  5.2
     -1.5 -1.5  0.1  3.3  7.6 11.3 13.5 12.9  9.9  5.8  2.1 -0.3
 
For Country Codes 431 612 614 620 621 634 645 651
[chiefio@tubularbells analysis]$ 

The list of thermometers in 2009

[chiefio@tubularbells analysis]$ cat LIST.stns2009 
43104220000 EGEDESMINDE                     68.70  -52.75   41   20R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
43104250000 GODTHAB NUUK                    64.17  -51.75   70    0R   -9MVxxCO 1A-9TUNDRA          B   17
43104312000 NORD ADS                        81.60  -16.67   34   13R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9ICE             A    0
43104320000 DANMARKSHAVN                    76.77  -18.67   12  265R   -9FLxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
43104360000 ANGMAGSSALIK                    65.60  -37.63   52  275R   -9MVxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
43104390000 PRINS CHRISTI                   60.05  -43.17   74    0R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9TUNDRA          A    0
61206030000 ALBORG                          57.10    9.87   13   10U  155FLxxCO30A 5WARM CROPS      C   13
61206186000 KOBENHAVN/                      55.68   12.55    9    5U 1328FLxxCO 1x-9WATER           C   71
61206190000 RONNE                           55.07   14.75   16   81S   15FLxxCO 1A 3WATER           A    0
61402836000 SODANKYLA                       67.37   26.65  179  191R   -9FLFOno-9A-9MAIN TAIGA      A    0
61402869000 KUUSAMO                         65.97   29.18  263  276R   -9FLFOLA-9A-9MAIN TAIGA      C   33
61402875000 OULU                            64.93   25.37   15   16U  103FLxxCO 2A 5MAIN TAIGA      C   22
61402897000 KAJAANI                         64.28   27.68  136  153S   21FLxxLA-9A 5MAIN TAIGA      C   18
61402929000 JOENSUU                         62.67   29.63  117   93R   -9HIMALA-9A-9MAIN TAIGA      C   21
61402935000 JYVASKYLA                       62.40   25.68  145  136R   -9HIxxno-9A-9COOL MIXED      B   19
61402958000 LAPPEENRANTA                    61.05   28.20  115   85U   53FLxxLA-9x-9COOL FOR./FIELD C   57
61402963000 JOKIOINEN                       60.82   23.50  103  108R   -9HIFOno-9x-9COOL CROPS      B   24
61402972000 TURKU                           60.52   22.27   59   35U  217FLxxCO10A 5WATER           C   57
61402974000 HELSINKI/SEUTULA                60.30   25.00   58   33U  794FLxxCO 1x-9COOL CROPS      C   96
62004013000 STYKKISHOLMUR                   65.08  -22.73    8  118R   -9HIxxCO 1A-9TUNDRA          B   23
62004018000 KEFLAVIKURFLU                   63.97  -22.60   54    6R   -9HIxxCO 3A-9WATER           C   13
62004030000 REYKJAVIK                       64.13  -21.90   53   54U   98HIxxCO 1A 1COOL GRASS/SHRUBC   77
62004048000 VESTMANNAEYJA                   63.40  -20.28  124    0R   -9HIxxCO 1A-9WATER           A    0
62004063000 AKUREYRI                        65.68  -18.08   27  101S   11MVxxCO 1x-9TUNDRA          C   23
62004082000 HOFN I HORNAFIRDI/HOLAR IC      64.30  -15.20    2   91R   -9MVxxCO 1A-9WATER           A   11
62103953000 VALENTIA OBSE                   51.93  -10.25   14   47R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
62103955000 CORK AIRPORT                    51.85   -8.48  162   82U  134HIxxCO15A 3WARM CROPS      C   12
62103962000 SHANNON AIRPO                   52.70   -8.92   20   14R   -9FLxxCO 1A-9WARM CROPS      B   12
62103967000 CASEMENT AERO                   53.30   -6.43   93  137U  680HIxxCO17A 3WARM CROPS      C   24
62103969000 DUBLIN AIRPOR                   53.43   -6.25   85   52U  680FLxxCO10A 3WARM CROPS      C   33
62103976000 BELMULLET                       54.23  -10.00   10   19R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WARM CROPS      A    6
62103980000 MALIN HEAD                      55.37   -7.33   25   13R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WARM CROPS      A    0
63401001000 JAN MAYEN                       70.93   -8.67    9    0R   -9MVxxCO 1A-9WATER           A    0
63401008000 SVALBARD LUFT                   78.25   15.47   29    0R   -9MVxxCO 1A-9POLAR DESERT    A    0
63401025000 TROMO/SKATTO        NORWAY      69.50   19.00   11  132S   43MVxxCO 1x-9TUNDRA          A    0
63401028000 BJORNOYA                        74.52   19.02   16   19R   -9FLxxCO 2A-9WATER           A    0
63401065000 KARASJOK                        69.47   25.50  133  324R   -9HIFOno-9x-9WOODED TUNDRA   B   18
63401098000 VARDO                           70.37   31.10   15    0R   -9FLxxCO 1x-9WATER           B    9
63401152000 BODO VI                         67.27   14.37   13    5S   31HIxxCO 1A 1WATER           C   25
63401212000 ONA II                          62.87    6.53   15    0R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
63401238000 FOKSTUA II                      62.12    9.28  974  984R   -9MVxxno-9x-9TUNDRA          A    0
63401241000 ORLAND III                      63.70    9.60    7    9R   -9HIxxCO 1A-9WATER           B    8
63401317000 BERGEN/FREDRIKSBERG             60.40    5.30   44   79U  213HIxxCO 2x-9COOL GRASS/SHRUBC   61
63401384000 OSLO/GARDERMO                   60.20   11.08  204  206R   -9MVxxno-9A-9MAIN TAIGA      B   55
63401403000 UTSIRA FYR                      59.30    4.88   56    0R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
63401415000 STAVANGER/SOL                   58.88    5.63    9   33U   87HIxxCO 4A 5WARM CONIFER    C   29
63401465000 TORUNGEN FYR                    58.40    8.80   15    5R   -9FLxxCO 1x-9WATER           B    0
64502080000 KARESUANDO                      68.45   22.50  327  371R   -9FLFOno-9x-9WOODED TUNDRA   B   12
64502196000 HAPARANDA                       65.83   24.15    6    5R   -9FLxxCO 3x-9COASTAL EDGES   C   41
64502226000 OSTERSUND/FRO                   63.18   14.50  370  317S   14HIxxLA-9A 8MAIN TAIGA      B   22
64502550000 JONKOPING FLY                   57.77   14.08  232  183U  131HIxxno-9A 5COOL MIXED      C   24
64502590000 VISBY AIRPORT       SWEDEN      57.67   18.35   47   18S   20FLxxCO 1x-9WATER           B   17
65103005000 LERWICK                         60.13   -1.18   84   52R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
65103026000 STORNOWAY                       58.22   -6.32   13    2R   -9FLxxCO 1A-9WARM GRASS/SHRUBB    7
65103091000 ABERDEEN/DYCE                   57.20   -2.22   65   98U  210HIxxCO 5A 3WARM CROPS      C   26
65103100000 TIREE                           56.50   -6.88   12    4R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A    0
65103162000 ESKDALEMUIR                     55.32   -3.20  242  293R   -9HIxxno-9x-9WARM CROPS      A    0
65103257000 LEEMING                         54.30   -1.53   40   42R   -9HIxxno-9A-9WARM CROPS      B    9
65103302000 VALLEY                          53.25   -4.53   11   33R   -9HIxxCO 1A-9WARM CROPS      B    7
65103377000 WADDINGTON                      53.17   -0.52   70   56U   74FLxxno-9A 3HEATHS, MOORS   C   12
65103862000 BOURNEMOUTH A                   50.78   -1.83   11   41U  144HIxxCO 5A 2WARM CROPS      C   14
65103917000 BELFAST/ALDER                   54.65   -6.22   81   68U  552FLxxCO20A15WARM CROPS      B   13
[chiefio@tubularbells analysis]$ 
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About E.M.Smith

A technical managerial sort interested in things from Stonehenge to computer science. My present "hot buttons' are the mythology of Climate Change and ancient metrology; but things change...
This entry was posted in NCDC - GHCN Issues and tagged . Bookmark the permalink.

10 Responses to GHCN Nordic North – Nothing Much to See

  1. Dennis says:

    A little OT but I’m struck by the discussions of these thermometers being located a airports and large urban centers as if these sites are somehow more accurate/representative/whatever. I have had some small experience with the Remote Automated Weather Stations (RAWS) sites located on Forest Service (and other resource agency) lands. These started being used for fire weather perhaps 30-35 years ago and have gradually become more widely and permanently sited and more standardized in their use. As the name implies, they automatically measure a number of weather components and transmit the information to various data bases via a satelite link. They sample these components at 10 minute intervals. One of the cooperators is NOAA and I’m pretty sure the info goes into some of the systems you guys are working with.

    At the very least they would seem to be candidates for a “reality check” on the temperature data obtained by “two-site” state representations. I know they have been rigorously standardized in operation and quality since 2000 and should provide very good basic information. The ones I’m most familiar with are in the mountains of Idaho and Montana and are likely under the snow for 5-6 months of the year, so I’m not sure if they transmit then (but I think they do).

    If anyone is interested, there’s some pretty good info at the Forest Service site at: http://www.fs.fed.us/raws/

  2. E.M.Smith says:

    @Dennis

    I think most of the discussion of airport and urban thermometers is either about the need to adjust for their Urban Heat Island effect or (incredulous) speculation that maybe someone at NOAA thought they would be more stable (in a vain attempt to explain keeping them and tossing the rural stations.)

    I think you are exactly right about the RAWS system. GIStemp uses the GHCN and USHCN (but not the USHCN.v2 or new version two) datasets. It would only use a RAWS station if that is in GHCN (which does not seem to be the case, give that California has only 4 thermometers in GHCN, all at major urban airports) or USHCN (but the USHCN records cut off in early 2007 when the conversion to USHCN.v2 happened, so no new data would be making it into GIStemp).

    Were I in charge, I’d have had 100% of the RAWS data fed in to GIStemp from the first day of RAWS.

  3. Ripper says:

    Another graph for you E.M.

    Is there any way you can split the temperatures up by latitude?

  4. E.M.Smith says:

    Ripper
    Another graph for you E.M.

    Thanks, I’ll integrate it with the posting “real soon now” ;-)

    Is there any way you can split the temperatures up by latitude?

    Yes. The same code that makes “thermometer count by latitude” with a little change can to “temperatures” or “temperature averages” by latitude. What have you got in mind?

  5. Ripper says:

    I thought if we could the temp out puts by latitude band of individual countries we could see the trends by latitude vs thermometers.

  6. E.M.Smith says:

    Interesting idea. I’ve got a couple of things I need to do for TonyB, then I’ll see what I can “cook up”.

  7. Espen says:

    Much of what’s left in Norway seems to be airports, e.g. Oslo Gardermoen, which used to be a small airport and an air base, but which became the main Norwegian hub in 1998. Unfortunately, it’s “rural”, so it probably provides an upwards adjustment for several cities in the last 10 years.

  8. Dominic says:

    Hi EMS

    Popped back here for a look after being away for a while. Great to see all the new work.

    I have read comments in which you are being encouraged to write a paper for a journal. I am not sure this is such a good idea.

    My view as an ex-academic and after following Steve’s work on ClimateAudit for a couple of years is that publication in any important climate journal takes a lot of time and often involves fighting with referees who I am sure will find all sorts of irrelevant bones to pick. You will quickly decide you have better things to do.

    Instead it may make more sense given your engaging writing style and pretty clear exposition to basically convert your blog into a 10-20 page “review” document with pretty graphs and a nice intro and conclusions, pdf it and then put in online.

    The fact is that what you have worked out (sorry to be frank and I do not mean to denigrate your technical achievement and diligence) is not “rocket science” and so can be easily grasped by any layman/woman and SCIENCE JOURNALISTS.

    It’s certainly not as mathematically involved as the statistical wizardry involved in the hockey stick work and that’s what gives you a huge advantage in trying to convince people (I think a large part of why SMc does not get the widespread recognition he deserves is that scientific journalists do not understand his methods and so are nervous about backing him up, especially when others cloud the issues so much).

    Then post it here. I would happily send it to all my friends and I am sure others would too. My view is that emailing a document is a much more effective way to get people to engage. Not everyone is happy to spend hours reading a blog but most people are curious about AGW and would be OK to print out 10-20 pages to be read at leisure.

    It would hopefully go “viral”, maybe even before Copenhagen.

    What you have done is important and needs attention.

    Keep it up !
    Dominic

    PS I would happily review it (I used to be a theoretical physicist which may help or may not!)

    REPLY: “Sounds good to me. Right now I’m still in the ‘slog through it and figure out what you’ve got’ stage. Toss bits at the wall as discovered. Grab the crayon and draw colored lines between the bits… Later comes the organize and pretty print document stage. And I take no offense at the ‘not rocket science’ comment (though I’ve done a bit of rocketry and, IMHO, ‘rocket science is not rocket science’ ;-) But yes, my ‘gift’, to the extent I have one, is as a ‘boundary spanning function’. I can walk both sides of the street and translate between them. I figure when I have roughly equal numbers saying ‘I just can not get it, it is too tech’ and ‘not rocket’; then I’m probably pitched about right.

    I particularly like to take very technical things and reduce them to a level that is clear to most everyone. I truly believe that it takes more skill to do that, but also leads to better grasp of the world around you, than to do a complex bit of calculus.

    But that is not the style that will impress a Ph.D. with a chip on his shoulder, a publication history to defend, and an ‘ego need’ to feel that any new contribution to ‘his’ field must meet some standard of obfuscation to be impressive enough to warrant merit. I can do that stuff, but I’ve spent about 40 years learning to speak more clearly with smaller words rather than piss folks off with impressive misplaced flourish. So I’d have to regress a bit to do the academic publication thing. (I do have a couple of ideas that sprout from the stuff posted here that would need more technical treatment and might yet be ‘publication quality’.)

    But the biggest bit of clue I’ve picked up from this exploration of GHCN and GIStemp is just the misplaced parenthesis insight: average(dT/dt) works; d(average T)/dt does not. And GIStemp and friends do the latter. So my present ‘work plan’ is to get a ‘stuff on the wall’ blog fast and loose, then a ‘write up’ that is tighter and approachable, then at leisure after Copenhagen contemplate the more technical bits that can not be suitably reduced (so would be suited to folks wanting complexity). But that bit is for another day… -ems “

  9. E.M.Smith says:

    @Dominic: Or put more prosaically: My job right now is to push the plough through the GHCN / GIStemp field and see what bits and worms I can turn up. For now it is up to others to pick up interesting bits and use them; be that a gold coin or a fishbait worm or two. After I’ve turned the field up, the coin or two I put in my pocket along the way will be enough for a beer at the pub
    ;-)

    So that’s why I tell folks I’m more interested in the 2nd or 3rd author position. I can run the computer bits, feed the data and insights, and write bits of new code; someone else can wrap it in the package and have their picture on the cover. For now, at least.

  10. E.M.Smith says:

    @Dominic

    On pondering this, I have a “correction and elaboration” to the view that “this isn’t rocket science” … I think it is.

    It is just that I think you ought to start with the basic simple bits first and only work up to the really complicated stuff if your foundation is sound (and only to the extent necessary). So I start with “what does the data look like”. It is all you have as a foundation. For later; I’ve got some ideas for some terribly complicated tests and ‘validations’ of GIStemp that I think only belong in a Journal somewhere.

    But right now, I’m just sticking this bit of rubber in a glass of ice water and noticing it gets really hard and brittle… and asking “Do you think this might have something to do with the rubber O ring failure that brought down the shuttle?”

    That was rocket science; just with all the clutter out of the way.

    Feynman is something of an iconic hero to me. While I know I can never come close to his level (I’ve never seen a mind kept so tidy; nor so ‘simple’, in the Amish sense of ‘all you need, done well, and no more to clutter up life’. To be ‘simple’ is a high goal of the Amish…) I do share the goal of a simple tidy mind, and strive to see through the clutter to the bits that really matter.

    So yes, this work is very ‘simple’. And it is rocket science; just done the Feynman way…

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Feynman

    Under the Asia thread you will find that Japan now has no location above about 300 meters of altitude… Mountains? Who needs mountains, too much snow on ’em… at least, that seems to be the pattern of GHCN in Japan…

    So we’ve abandoned the mountains in Japan

    https://chiefio.wordpress.com/2009/11/02/ghcn-asia-chinese-footprints-in-siberian-snow/

    and we’ve abandoned the mountains in California

    https://chiefio.wordpress.com/2009/10/24/ghcn-california-on-the-beach-who-needs-snow/

    So we’re taking loads of the thermometers out of the mountains and northern places and putting them on the coast nearer the equator; you think that might have something to do with the readings getting hotter?

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