Quakes, Volcanoes, Indonesia and Atlantic

Well, the volcano in Indonesia continues to clear it’s throat. This video is from a few days back, but does a good job of letting you see what the damage has been like. A lot of ash. I’d not be riding around in it on a motorcycle like these folks, unless I had a very good respirator.

Al Jazeera has a decent article on it here.

Indonesia’s Mount Merapi volcano has errupted in an explosion three times as powerful as an eruption last week that forced tens of thousands of residents from their homes.

Gas and molten lava were spewing from the volcano on Thursday on the island of Java, again making people flee to makeshift government shelters. At least 38 people have been killed since the eruption on October 26.

More than 70,000 people have already been taken in by the shelters or have left for other parts of the country, with the government warning that the pressure within the volcano may not yet have peaked.

Got that? “may not yet have peaked’? Increase of three fold over the prior eruption (that folks for unknown reasons thought might be the biggest they would see this cycle. But they were wrong.

‘Extraordinary eruption’

“This is an extraordinary eruption,” Surono, a state volcanologist, said, adding that the blast was three times the force of the first eruption last month.

“It looks like we may be entering an even worse stage now.”

Surono had earlier said that energy in the crater could be easing, though rocks and debris were flying from the Mount Merapi.

The only thing surprising to me about this is that people think volcanoes have a predictable activity level based on their observations during their lifetime. The Volcano moves in cycles of thousands of years, not our dozens. So it’s waking up and clearing it’s throat. Yeah, that’s “unprecedented” in one person’s lifetime, but completely normal in the life of a subduction zone.

But that’s not all…

We’ve got more shutdown of flights due to volcanoes. Indonesia kicking up it’s heals in several places (3 active now, and 19 others are warming up). It looks like Anak Krakatau is erupting too…

OK, we broadly hinted at this kind of thing “coming soon” in a few prior postings. The most recent being the one that looked at the link between Mid Atlantic activity and Icelandic volcano activity:


At that time, I saved this image of 3 ‘small ones’ on the ridge. And wondered if more were to come?

North America and Atlantic Quake Map 26 October 2010

North America and Atlantic Quake Map 26 October 2010

OK, there has been another one, but bigger, on that ridge.

Live Map:

North America and Mid Atlantic Ridge Quake Map

North America and Mid Atlantic Ridge Quake Map

Original with clickable details


This event has been reviewed by a seismologist.
Magnitude 5.6
Thursday, November 04, 2010 at 12:29:31 UTC
Thursday, November 04, 2010 at 09:29:31 AM at epicenter
Time of Earthquake in other Time Zones
Location 12.839°N, 44.876°W
Depth 10 km (6.2 miles) set by location program
Distances 1200 km (740 miles) NE of CAYENNE, French Guiana
Location Uncertainty
horizontal +/- 5 km (3.1 miles); depth fixed by location program
NST=250, Nph=250, Dmin=>999 km, Rmss=0.86 sec, Gp= 32°,
M-type=teleseismic moment magnitude (Mw), Version=T
Event ID usb0000ah0

(And, I note, similar sized 5.3 events in Mexico and Alaska; while California continues to shake a wee bit all over the place).

Iceland Activity



Monday 1st November 2010
Grimsvotn Volcano, Iceland
A possible eruption has begun at Grimsvotn volcano, Iceland. A flood has started in Gigja in south-east Iceland. The disturbance occurred under the Vatnajokull glacier near Grimsvotn Volcano on Sunday afternoon. There was an increase in flow of water by 30 cm but other rivers running from the glacier are dry. The flood may take 4-5 days to reach maximum. On Sunday the volume of water in Gigja was 130 cubic metres per second, and electrolyte levels double that of normal. Grimsvotn is the most active volcano in Iceland.

Wednesday 3rd November 2010
Grimsvotn Volcano, Iceland
Melt water continue to flow from Grimsvotn volcano, Iceland. The rate has slowed compared to previous days. An increased in electrical conductivity in the Súla river indicates that geothermal water is draining from the western side of the Skeiðarárjökull glacier. Earthquakes continue to occur under Grimsvötn volcano indicating that floodwaters flow under the glacier. There is no indication the volcano is currently erupting.

While things are warming up, they are not erupting. Yet.

The Rest of the World Earthquakes

OK, the rest of the world quake maps show loads of 5.x and some 6.x kind of all over the place at “the usual suspects”. Not particularly extreme, but still pretty active.

Australia and Indonesia

Australia Region Quake Map

Australia Region Quake Map

Original Image, with captions and description. The original is interactive with clickable regions for ‘close ups’.

There is a nice 6.0 in Papua.


This event has been reviewed by a seismologist.
Magnitude 6.0
Wednesday, November 03, 2010 at 11:18:16 UTC
Wednesday, November 03, 2010 at 08:18:16 PM at epicenter
Time of Earthquake in other Time Zones
Location 4.614°S, 134.040°E
Depth 14.8 km (9.2 miles) set by location program
130 km (80 miles) N of Dobo, Kepulauan Aru, Indonesia
270 km (170 miles) WSW of Enarotali, Papua, Indonesia
930 km (580 miles) NNE of DARWIN, Northern Territory, Australia
3015 km (1870 miles) E of JAKARTA, Java, Indonesia
Location Uncertainty
horizontal +/- 14 km (8.7 miles); depth fixed by location program
NST=154, Nph=154, Dmin=273.8 km, Rmss=1.29 sec, Gp= 22°,
M-type=centroid moment magnitude (Mw), Version=9
Event ID usb00009wf

Tonga Too

The most notable at the moment is likely that 6.0 at Tonga:

Magnitude 6.0 – TONGA

This event has been reviewed by a seismologist.
Magnitude 6.0
Wednesday, November 03, 2010 at 23:34:44 UTC
Thursday, November 04, 2010 at 12:34:44 PM at epicenter
Time of Earthquake in other Time Zones
Location 20.440°S, 174.290°W
Depth 33.2 km (20.6 miles)
Region TONGA
120 km (75 miles) NE of NUKU`ALOFA, Tonga
200 km (125 miles) S of Neiafu, Tonga
460 km (285 miles) E of Ndoi Island, Fiji
2100 km (1310 miles) NNE of Auckland, New Zealand
Location Uncertainty
horizontal +/- 20.3 km (12.6 miles); depth +/- 1.1 km (0.7 miles)
NST=309, Nph=311, Dmin=>999 km, Rmss=0.7 sec, Gp= 40°,
M-type=teleseismic moment magnitude (Mw), Version=9
Event ID usb0000abs

We’ve had quite a series there.

Here is a Pacific centric view:

Pacific Centric Quake Map

Pacific Centric Quake Map

Original Image with Clickable Details

Both Hemispheres

A view of Earthquakes from the South Pole

A view of Earthquakes from the South Pole

Original Image with Clickable Details

North Polar Earthquake Map

North Polar Earthquake Map

Original Image with Clickable Details

If you click the links to the originals you can not only ‘click through’ to any given area or quake, but by clicking on the little blue diamonds you can rotate the globe to different points of view. It’s kind of fun…

The Whole World View

Current quake map

Current quake map

Original Image, with captions and description. The original is interactive with clickable regions for ‘close ups’.

Live USA Quake Map

Zooming in just a bit on the USA.

Live USA Quake Map

California Map

Action Closer to Me

As I live in California, it makes it easier for me if I keep them in the list where I can see what’s shaking near me.

Current quake map in California

Current quake map in California

Original Image, with captions and description. The original is interactive with clickable regions for ‘close ups’.

Mammoth Lakes / Long Valley Volcano

Because I want to know if it starts to blow it’s top…

Mammoth Mountain - Long Valley Super Volcano

About E.M.Smith

A technical managerial sort interested in things from Stonehenge to computer science. My present "hot buttons' are the mythology of Climate Change and ancient metrology; but things change...
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14 Responses to Quakes, Volcanoes, Indonesia and Atlantic

  1. pouncer says:

    So ash obscures sunlight, dropping temperatures. Reality diverges farther from GCMs. But modelers now have an excuse! No GCMs included the ash!

    The good news is that it should be possible to develop a new GCM that does ash. So when the wheel turns and temperatures tend upwards again, the solution will not be to cut CO2.

    It’ll be to simulate volanoes, using nuclear explosives.

    Nice to finally have that climate control power we’ve been after.

  2. pouncer says:

    On the downside, it occurs to me they’ll probably give such power to somebody like Alan Greenspan…

  3. George says:

    From my reading here and there is seems as if massive activity in Indonesia follows a significant increase in earthquake activity by some 5 to 6 years. I note that we are 5 years into a period of increased EQ activity there (if you start with the 2005 megathrust quake).

    Many of the people caught in this current Merapi mess are people who were evacuated only days before from areas hard hit by a tsunami generated by a strong quake just before the current eruption.

    A good guess based on the history of the past 200 years or so would be that we are probably in for increased volcanism in Indonesia over the next decade.

  4. Verity Jones says:

    There is some talk of a mega eruption from Mt Merapi with the magma chamber filled to three times the volume of what was ejected by Tambora in 1815. Of course it could end up doing nothing


  5. E.M.Smith says:

    Ah, another wonderful contribution from Verity, thanks! (That video is still haunting me. I love the animation with the accent…)

    @George: Yup. Right on schedule. And ought I to point out that the LAST Bond Event started in 540 AD and they are 1470 years apart? (2010)

    Now I’m not one to monger panic lightly, but numbers are numbers. However, Bond Events are +/- a couple of hundred years…. (mostly in measurement error…)

    My money would be on a Very Cold Spike with the middle of the bottom at 2030-2040 AD. Or, rather, my money IS on …

    I’m in Orlando Florida right now. It’s cool verging on cold. My spouse in California reports a steady downpour of cold rain. This, as they say, is NOT the global warming I was promised…

    So yes, I expect Indonesia to erupt more over the next decade, most likely with a spectacular eruption about 2020 – 2030, and thus the cold spike in 2030 – 2040.

    Store food, fuel, and gold / silver / copper. Guns optional. (Personally, I prefer a Japanese short sword indoors and a bow and arrow outdoors… but that’s just me. ;-)

    No, I don’t expect the end of civilization as we know it (as welcome as that might be to some…) but I do expect a Dalton Minimum type cold snap. And when the Indonesian volcano blows, a “Year without a summer”…

  6. R. de Haan says:

    I really don’t know if the Merapi eruption will lead to the volcanic armageddon similar to the one that ended the Roman Empire but, without alarmist intentions, the threat of a big volcanic impact taking place in our times is as real as it can be.

    The AC 536 eruption of Kraktau caused a nuclear winter that lasted for a period of 18 months during which time no plant growth was possible. People and animals perished and when the dust settled the Dark Ages took off.

    The eruption also ended the Roman Warmth Period when temperatures were much higher than today.

    The Medieval Warmth period, slightly cooler than the Roman Warmth period but still warmer than today also ended with a massive eruption of Huaynaputina volcano.

    Throughout the Little Ice Age, the Maunder and Dalton Minimum low sunspot cycles coincided with numerous volcanic eruptions with similar but shorter lived impacts compared to the AC 436 Krakatau eruption.

    The Laki (killing dry fog) and Tamborra eruptions (followed by the year without summer and two very harsh winters) had a devastating effect in terms of crop losses, famine, cold and loss of life, people and animals.

    Neither of the mentioned events stopped our ascend to our current level of civilization but a high price was paid for sure.

    We now have arrived at the beginning of a new period of low solar activity.

    In order to be prepared for the future, we have to to be aware of the events that happened in the past.

    Our modern society and our technology could overcome the onset of a big eruption.

    But not if our resources are used wrongly and our power base depends on wind, solar and crop based bio fuels.

    Above all we need to be able to rely on our scientific data.

    The USGS website for example tells us there is no increase in seismic and volcanic activity but there are other resources that tell us a different story.

    One of my resources comes up with these numbers of seismic events for the year 2010:

    Magnitude 8 – 9.9
    2010 Earthquakes so far (1)
    annual average (1)
    100% of 100yr. annual avg. to day #311

    Magnitude 7 – 7.9
    2010 Earthquakes so far (19)
    annual average (15)
    149% of 100yr. annual avg. to day #311

    Magnitude 6 – 6.9
    2010 Earthquakes so far (134)
    annual average (135)
    118% of 100yr. annual avg. to day #311

    Magnitude 5 – 5.9
    2010 Earthquakes so far (1,547)
    annual average (1,319)
    138% of 100yr. annual avg. to day #311

    Although the number of volcanic eruptions over the recent weeks is impressive and without any doubt will effect the Dust Veil Index, no major eruption with global impact has taken place so far.

    What fascinates me though is that our sun apparently not only drives our climate but also seems to effect geological cycles.

    The very idea that our climate system could be dominated by CO2 let alone the human emissions of CO2 is a lunatic theory from my perspective and I really hope this madness will take an end soon so we can concentrate on real world subjects and end the suppression of scientific reports and data that does not support the AGW doctrine.

    On the upside, we are the lucky few to have a front row seat during an exceptional moment in time with satellites in space and unbelievable tools of communication and exchange of idea’s and knowledge and the opportunity to observe, study and learn in ways not available to previous generations.

    For what it’s worth I enjoy every minute of it.

    We truly live in fascinating times.

  7. Keith Hill says:

    With the way temperatures are heading round the world and all the other indicators that cooler times are coming, the CAGW lobby are probably praying for massive eruptions from Merapi and other volcanos.
    They certainly made the most of Mt Pinatubo in the early 1990’s to try and explain away the rapid temperature falls at that time.
    The only problem for them was that the records negated the claims put forward by James Hansen at his CDIAC site and so many other warmists at various other sites, that the “cooling in the early 1990′s was due to the Mt.Pinatubo eruption”. The eruption didn’t occur until mid-June 1991 but the charts clearly show temperatures fell dramatically in 1989, 1990, and continued to do so in 1991 before the volcanic event. Only then would the eruption have contributed something to the rapidly falling trend.
    Significantly, the fall in that period was a tremendous embarrassment to the AGW lobby and Hansen in particular as it followed his appearance before the US Senate Committee in 1988 to spout his dire warnings about alleged “man-made global warming”.
    The same fall seems to have triggered another very significant action in 1993, that of dropping data from hundreds of surface stations round the world which E.M has dubbed “The Great dying of Thermometers”.
    To my knowledge no valid explanation of why this was done has ever been given. However, it does seem to have sparked a whole raft of standardising, gridding, homogenizing and various other means, known and unknown, of adjusting the raw data until it is virtually unrecognisable and of dubious value.
    I apologise if I have touched on this matter before but I feel the significance and linkage of the events has never fully been investigated

  8. George says:

    I read that Spiegel article yesterday but have also been reading Erik Klemetti’s blog:


    And he seems to think it is alarmist journalism and doesn’t agree. So far he is been correct in that there has been nothing atypical about this particular eruption of Merapi. What does seem atypical is the level of unrest seen in so many neighboring volcanoes.

    Also, if one has a look at a map, you will notice what looks like a pretty clear caldera-shaped bite taken out around Krakatau. It looks like Java and Sumatra might have been connected at one point in the past.

    Looking at this map:

    You might notice the circular-ish looking “bite” taken out of Lampung, Sumatra and Banten, Java. Merapi, on the other hand, straddles the border with Central Java and Yogyakarta. It doesn’t appear that there has been anything as large as whenever it was that Krakatau went off and apparently disconnected Java from Sumatra.

    That doesn’t mean it can’t happen, just that it doesn’t look like anything that large ever HAS happened there, at least in the past several million years. Of course, whoever was living around Naples, Italy at the time of the Campi Flegrei eruption probably thought the same thing before it went off. That eruption would have put a major halt to modern man’s migration into Europe until vegetation started to grow again. That one laid down a carpet of ash all the way to what is now the outskirts of Moscow and buried a lot of Eastern Europe several feet deep in ash.

    Because these events are so rare (only 2 VEI 7 eruptions in the past 2000 years and the last VEI 8 was some 27,000 years ago, people have no sense of scale. They think Mt. St. Helens was a big eruption or that Pinatubo was a big eruption. Pinatubo was a VEI 5. To give some scale, the last VEI 8 volcano buried the North island of New Zealand under over 600 feet of ash. Absolutely nothing would have survived that. That island would have been completely sterilized. The last time that particular volcano erupted around 180 AD (VEI 7 Hatepe eruption), it was noticed in Rome.

    This eruption is tiny (so far).

  9. Verity Jones says:

    @EM, thanks. OT here obviously, but there are now 10 videos in that series – all different speakers (same animator).


    I haven’t watched all of them – yet, but the few I have watched are very good. They stick in the mind because of the pictures.

  10. E.M.Smith says:

    I probably ought to point out that “expecting at something” is a process that usually does not give useful results. I typically use my “expectations” as a baseline of sorts for measuring how far off of reality I am. So what I expect is fine and all, but what happens will be something else.

    Usually that “speech” goes with financial expectations. But since I “expected” up above, it’s worth repeating here.

    But we have a statistical pattern of more and more powerful eruptions during solar minima, and we’ve got a solar minima of significant proportions underway. So while it’s a stochastic event, it’s worth expecting…

    @R. de Haan:

    Do we know which volcanic event lead to the Roman Dark Ages with any certainty? Do we know it was not just a local European dark event, perhaps from an Icelandic volcano adding extra “oomph” in Europe? If the entire world were unable to grow plants for 18 months, it seems to me the global record would be more dramatic… (Now I’m “expecting at” history…

    The “art” of matching a volcanic event with a historical event seems a bit from the “correlation IS causality” school of thought…

    Oh, and thanks for the pointers on the other specific eruptions, like Huaynaputina volcano, I’d been wondering…

    On the USGS: I think it’s just that they are saying, in essence, “Yeah, there are more this year. But it’s a bell curve, so 1/2 of the time there will be ‘more this year’; but it’s just not statistically significantly more this year…”

    And by that method we’ll get to wait until it’s cold and dark with 18 volcanoes blowing in Indonesia before they say “OK, there are more now, it’s a 5 sigma event.”

    On The Great Dying of Thermometers: There are some odd ‘patternings’ of the loss of instruments. Not enough pattern on the face of it to demonstrate malice, but enough to warrant an in depth analysis. One that, unfortunately, would require a full time effort (that I can’t do as long as I have to chase dollars each day to pay for things like food and fuel…) Several of the patterns have a ‘plausible deniability’ flavor to their stories. Like the rise of the count at Air Ports, and the rise in more equatorward locations. “Already being reported and well maintained” and “smoothing the global distribution”. So was it a screw-up to load up on Airports, or a malicious act? That speaks to motivation that can not be known short of memos and public statements…


    I especially liked this bit from that link (BEGIN QUOTES)

    Investigations of the volcano have revealed that an unprecedented Magma reservoir lurks underneath it, says Birger Lühr, a volcano researcher at the GFZ in Potsdam, Germany.

    “A rough estimate indicates that there is three times more magma than what was ejected by the Indonesian volcano Tambora in 1815 – the biggest eruption in the last 10,000 years, which led to a cooling of the climate globally.”

    Geoscientists aren’t sure what to make of this huge magma reservoir. As Der Spiegel reports, they are hesitant to make predictions of catastrophe (That’s only done in climate science, even though the odds are far less).


    you read interesting stuff…


    It’s an interesting problem. A large magma chamber is needed for a gigantic catastrophic event; so finding one raises the worry level significantly. However… Most large magma chambers do nothing significant for thousands of years, so it means nothing, really. Except that someday it might be a giant catastrophe for everyone. Maybe….

    My solution is simple: Enjoy the show. Prepare for the worst and hope for the best. So I’ve got about $500 of “preparedness stuff” in a closet. If I never ever use it, I will be intensely happy. If I do need it, I’ll be intensely relieved to have it. The only Bad Thing would be to need it and not have it… So I hope to give it, intact, to my kids some day. But if need be, I’ll use it for them sooner…

    FWIW I’ve found it worth well over $500 already as I’ve used the food during times of no income, or just when it was not convenient to run off to the store. (Out of sugar at 5 am? No worries, open a jar… enjoy your tea and cereal. Stop at the store tomorrow…) It also was worth well over cost during the Loma Prieta quake.

    Somehow it turns “impending doom” into “impending floor show” ;-)

    And while the potential for civilization destroying volcanism is an entrancing show, I’m rather more hoping for something like a re-awakening of Mt. Lassen. It would be much fun for it to toss it’s cookies over, oh, about a 40 mile radius. Just might remind some folks that even though it last erupted in 1914-15 (or near then) that it’s still an active volcano and just taking a moment to inhale…

    Probably ought to check on Chaiten and see if it’s still venting. It’s another ‘mega volcano’ potential that mostly just vents modestly for persistent periods.

  11. E.M.Smith says:

    Looks like “same old same old” for Chaiten:

    As for Chaitén, things remain active but quiet: a slight increase in seismic activity was registered during 20-28 September compared to levels earlier in the month, but ‘the energy released by the volcanic system remains at relatively low levels, comparable to earlier months’. SERNAGEOMIN is maintaining an alert level of Yellow level 3.

    quoted from:


    modest level of alert. Low levels of ‘stuff’. Nice big magma chamber…

  12. Malaga View says:

    completely normal in the life of a subduction zone

    Are you referring to the Pacific Ocean Ring of Fire subduction zone?

    The Pacific Ring of Fire ocean floor that is expanding in every direction?

    The Pacific Ring of Fire ocean floor that is pushing America away from Asia?

    That is some lateral force that is being exerted by the Pacific Ring of Fire ocean floor!

    Just saying :-)

  13. E.M.Smith says:

    @Malaga View: I’m referring in that case to the subduction zone under Indonesia that’s lifting it up and making mountains while at the same time you get a deep offshore trench where the plate bends down and subducts, dragging wet sediments with it that lube the process and make the rocks liquify at a lower temperature to feed the volcanoes. Same thing happened under California as we uplifted and got volcanoes. (One quake lifted part of the coast 9 feet, IIRC, a few years back. Down toward L.A.)

    FWIW, some of the smaller plates are smaller simply because they are being consumed by the larger plates pushing them under. So the Pacific Plate can easily grow in a direction without the continent moving away from it. The smaller plate can be consumed. The Pacific Plate can subduct. The continent can uplift and fold (take a look at the typical folding in mountain building…) and more.

    In the case of Indonesia, it’s where 4 plates meet, so it’s very complex. More here:


    with some subducting and some not. And all of it getting squashed. It’s the place where the spreading meets the not so spreading, so it gets the “rock and roll” as it gets sorted out (and up.. and down..) Mostly it’s the Australian Plate going under the Eurasian. Eventually Australia ought to end up smushed into Asia if things keep moving like at present. Image of plates here:


    Where you can see that the “ring of fire” is spread over many different plates and many different subduction zones. It’s not a place, and it’s not a thing. It’s a description of a kind of activity. Volcanoes around the edges of the Pacific where a variety of plates are getting smushed and subducted as the Pacific Plate spreads out. The red arrows show where things are spreading, subducting, or just passing past each other like currently in California. Or folding / uplifting as in where the Indian Plate hits the Eurasian Plate.

    Yes, it’s a lot of force. Take a plate of thousands of square miles, put viscous drag on it from a large convective cell of gooey magma, and you get one heck of a lot of force on it.

    Oh, and the expansion is away from the ridge / rift areas. Not exactly “in all directions”. So we get expansion where the magma is convecting upward, and things tend to get squashed and subducted where the goo heads back down for a re-heat. Some places grow, others shrink. And the “dross” ends up piled into places we call land and think nice to live on…

    And as I said, I’m happy to entertain the notion of an expanding earth as soon as I have an explanation of where the added “stuff” is coming from. Conservation of mass and all that… Until then, subduction explains more without as many loose ends.

    Just saying ;-)

    Nice little 6.3 on the plate boundary south of Australia…

    Magnitude 6.3 – SOUTHEAST INDIAN RIDGE
    2010 November 10 04:05:24 UTC

    This event has been reviewed by a seismologist.
    Magnitude 6.3
    Wednesday, November 10, 2010 at 04:05:24 UTC
    Wednesday, November 10, 2010 at 10:05:24 AM at epicenter
    Time of Earthquake in other Time Zones
    Location 45.538°S, 96.394°E
    Depth 10.7 km (6.6 miles)
    2250 km (1400 miles) SW of PERTH, Western Australia, Australia
    Location Uncertainty
    horizontal +/- 16.7 km (10.4 miles); depth +/- 0.3 km (0.2 miles)
    NST= 70, Nph= 74, Dmin=>999 km, Rmss=1.42 sec, Gp= 47°,
    M-type=”moment” magnitude from initial P wave (tsuboi method) (Mi/Mwp), Version=5
    Source USGS NEIC (WDCS-D)
    Event ID usc00008jr

  14. E.M.Smith says:

    Well, another set of 4.x “bookends” on each end of the Cascadia fault area….

    And the global views have more spots on them than I can count. They just look nearly moth eaten. Very bizarre compared to what I remember from years long past.

    Again, no “biggie” to post about, just one heck of a lot of “stuff” going on.

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