A “table of the isotopes”.
Stable atoms form a black line along the middle. To each side is instability. Could there be a clue here, for what reactions might “go” and what might not?
Here is a segment from the middle:
If you click on it you can get a bigger more readable version
If you look at Nickel, it has two different stable isotopes that have a stable Copper isotope right next to them. In theory, shoving a Proton into those Nickel atoms would result in another stable atom. Just one mass number higher. (Rows 34 and 36).
Looking at line 33, Ni(61) has no stable copper next to it, but on a diagonal down to the right, we find Cu(63) I would speculate that a Deuterium would work for that set. Adding 2 mass units, but only one proton. (Which implies it might be very interesting to try an e-Cat with a mix of deuterium and hydrogen and see if more of the Ni reacts to copper…)
An interesting question would be why Cu does not continue on to Zn. Is there some significant difference in ion size, or how hydrogen binds to copper? I presume there is some “special” catalytic effect for Nickel and Palladium for these kinds of reaction, just as they work as catalysts for others. (Perhaps that formation of hypothetical ‘Atomic Hydrogen’ on their surfaces).
The chart also suggests other metals that could be tested, and which gases (hydrogen, deuterium, tritium) might be most likely to work. So looking at line 32; Fe Iron has some tendency to act as a catalyst, as does Co Cobalt. Trying them with Hydrogen, or Co with deuterium, both might show activity under some circumstances. Similarly, line 30 with Cr Chromium and Mn Manganese. Further up the chart (click the link to the big full sized one) we find K Potassium has two isotopes with stable neighbor Ca Calcium on lines 20 and 22.
Scrolling way down to lines 56-64, there are many stable Pd Palladium atoms. Only two of them have stable neighbors to the right, so more often one might get an unstable Ag Silver that could then do a decay and give a weak radiation signature. Another interesting one is line 78. Xe Xenon. A stable Cs Cesium next to it. Perhaps that is how the Papp engine worked? Though there is also a very interesting line 1 where deuterium and Helium3 are stable neighbors… and line 12 where Neon Ne(22) and Sodium Na(23) are stable neighbors. Might the Papp engine work better with selected noble gas isotopes and hydrogen? Lines 20 and 22 show two stable Ar Argon isotopes with two stable K Potassium neighbors that have two stable Ca Calcium neighbors. Perhaps Argon enrichment gives better odds?
Just as potentially useful, IMHO, is the information of “what not to check”, at least not in an early screen. So Ca Calcium has many isotopes, and many of them stable, but only one on line 24 (out of 9 isotopes, 5 of them stable) has a hope of making a stable product. For Ni Nickel the lightest 6 isotopes are hopeless with Hydrogen ( 3 of them stable isotopes). The implication being that heavy isotope enrichment is a significant benefit. (And the corollary that deuterium might let the ‘middle isotope’ work). Pt Platinum (lines 110 to 120) has 9 isotopes (over a day in stability) of which 5 are stable, but only one of them on line 118 has a stable adjacent Au Gold. The odds of making Platinum “go” ought to be low. At Pb Lead and beyond, nothing has a stable neighbor to the right, so not worth testing (at least not until nothing else is left to test… one still might find a reaction that works, but gives ‘decay products’. I suppose you could call that a feature if it demonstrated nuclear reactions happening…)
In my opinion, a screen for hydrogen absorption (formation of ‘atomic hydrogen’) along with any indication of catalytic properties, then a check against the “stable neighbors” list and potentially some isotopic concentration; would likely find the best candidates earliest. Also selected deuterium or even tritium candidates could be identified. Testing relative reaction rates with deuterium vs hydrogen in various isotopes could also test the theory (if stable reaction of any can can be demonstrated first…)
As one example, ZnH2 Zinc Hydride, is relatively easy to prepare, and is used as a reducing agent in organic chemistry. It ought to be a good candidate, with 6 isotopes ( 5 stable) where the heaviest two have a stable neighbor Ga Gallium to the right and line 37 has a stable diagonal neighbor. A hydrogen / deuterium mix has 3 out of 5 isotopes able to make a stable neighbor. Enrichment for heavier isotopes could also be used.
So I can foresee a search of just that sort. Which metals have an affinity for Hydrogen, some catalytic tendencies, and stable right or right diagonal isotopic neighbors.
From 22 to 28 is another interesting series. Ti Titanium. It has seemed to work, in some cases, with some occasional indications of decay products IIRC. It has 4 of 5 isotopes with neighbors that have various half lives, some many years long, that could form, then oh so slowly decay. So there might also be a class of materials that “works” but with more decay product signatures. As noted above, that might lend more evidence for what actually happens.
Early in April 1989 the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai, embarked on a massive experimental campaign involving close to 50 scientists to investigate whether there was any basis to the reported claims of occurrence of “fusion reactions” at room temperature in Pd-D2O electrolysis cells. Deuterium gas/plasma loaded titanium targets as well as nickel-light hydrogen electrolytic systems were also studied for nuclear debris. Within weeks the production of neutrons and tritium was confirmed in over a dozen independent experimental configurations, with neutron yield being almost eight orders of magnitude smaller than that of tritium. This so called “branching ratio anomaly” has since been identified as a unique signature of lenr devices by other groups around the world. Autoradiography of deuterium gas/plasma loaded cold working titanium metal targets indicated that tritium production occurs primarily in localized hot spots, predominantly defect sites created during machining of the electrodes/targets.
It would be interesting to see what “decay modes” those shorter lived right isotopes have…
Were it not so toxic the Be Beryllium lines 5 & 6 are interesting in that both have stable right neighbors. And Be(9) has a stable diagonal right too, so a mix of ordinary water derived Hydrogen / Deuterium mix has 3 ways to work. (Though it doesn’t form a hydride readily and I have no idea how much hydrogen is absorbed into it.)
Well, that’s the idea. Since we don’t really know yet if hydrogen based transmutation of metals is real, or not; this is a highly speculative “enhancement” to a search that might do nothing.
Still, I think it is a sound “rule of thumb” for finding more likely places to test for reactivity and the more likely places where something might be found (if anything exists to find). It also hints at things, like why W Tungsten in a K Potassium salt solution might “go” when other things don’t. The favorable neighbors of K, and looking at W (lines 104 to 114) the stable 4 isotopes have some long lived if not quite stable right neighbors, so perhaps makes something heavier that then emits particles to energize the K reactions “after a while”. Looking at exactly what particles are emitted in such decays, and with what energies, might also be interesting. (A high speed proton, for example, whacking into a K, could be “just the ticket”…)
So I think this “thought tool” might have some use. If nothing else, it is an entertaining way to look at how the isotopes relate to each other. I do think the “suspected of working” set fits the hypothesis; so have some hope it actually has validity.
Time will tell.