URLs, HTML, Unicode & WordPress Antics

As I’ve watched folks have the same “issues” for years, and made the same explanations for years, I’ve decided to just put it in one posting where I can “toss a link” instead of recreating the same painful comments each time.

(Painful in that I not only need to use a level of “magic” in HTML as they need to learn, but as I need to take it beyond that a layer or two to display what one does and not have WordPress turn it into the actual HTML. In other words, the work to explain it is much harder than the work to do it.)

First up, a couple of definitions:

HTML – Hyper Text Markup Language. Those funny coding characters people use to make web pages and comments do “special things” like italics or bold or strike out text. They are “captured” by the WordPress engine and turned into the effect itself.

URL – Universal Resource Locator. That thing in the “address bar” of your browser that finds things on the internet. So, for example, “https:/duckduckgo.com” (that is the address of a much more polite search engine than Google, IMHO.) Now you will notice that just shows up as plain text, not an active link. That is because the quote marks ” ” around it told WordPress “do not add the HTML to make this an active link like:” https://duckduckgo.com/

Unicode – An encoding system that lets you represent darned near any character in the computer universe as a series of very common characters that pretty much everyone has. There are three common ‘encodings’ used. Hexadecimal numbers (because computers calculate in binary and hexidecimal, or ‘hex’, is an easy way to represent it – so a lot of converting hex to something else and back by programmers can be avoided with a direct hex mapping), Decimal numbers (because real people often don’t like thinking in hex or dealing with it), and Text (since most folks can’t remember a string of numbers all that well for common things.) So, for example, if I want the ‘cent sign’, it is not on my keyboard. So how to get ¢? Well, I used the Unicode for “cent sign” that has the text value “cent” wrapped in an escape sequence..

Escape – When you are in one mode, such as ‘use as a URL’, and wish to have that not happen, you can ‘escape’ that mode and into another, typically with the use of specially defined “escape characters”. These can be various kinds of quoting (as shown above with the duckduckgo URL example) or other special characters. Since there are hundreds of kinds of “modes” in Geekdom and various languages and systems, that all have different ideas about what is “special”, the “escape sequence” for any one mode varies dramatically by what computer system, language, or mode is in use. So sometimes it is a / slash, or a \ backslash, or a ” ” pair, or even an & or more. For HTML in a comment, you are trying to ‘escape’ (temporarily) from text entry mode and into HTML mode. This is usually done with the < sign. The escape is ended with the > sign. This also means attempts to use them as “just text” can fail when WordPress decides you meant them as an “escape to HTML” directive and stole them to make HTML out of it. Moral: Don’t start with a leading < and end with a > anything you want to ever see again ;-)

Guess how I typed those < > without them being captured as HTML? Yes, Yet Another Escape Sequence. In this case, the & is used to mark an “escape to Unicode for a particular character” and that escape ends with a semicolon ; and between them you can put the Unicode coding for a particular character. For Less Than sign and Greater Than sign, there are several options. Including a text value, a hexadecimal number, or a decimal number. The easy to remember text form is lt for less than and gt for greater than. So the whole sequence for < is &lt; Easy, no? (Now figure out how I got THAT to print… ;-)

Some folks try to use the square brackets [ and ] and those are not special to WordPress. Oddly, there’s also an “Angle Bracket” that is a lot like the < and > signs, but isn’t it either. More on that below… Just realize folks often call those < and > characters “angle brackets” when they mean something else…

WordPress – Is, of course, this wonderful platform that lets us have blogs for free and hides all the technical details from us… except when it takes something to be Unicode and "fixes it" when it wasn't, or takes something to NOT be a URL when it is, and breaks the URL. Then we are thrust kicking and screaming into the hidden world of hypertext and markup languages against our will… (Well, most of us. Geeks like me kind of like it. I type my HTML "long hand" and don't use their visual editor 'tools'…)

Some Unicode and HTML

OK, like it or not, you must learn a couple of escape sequences, and a little bit of Unicode. The very good news is that the Unicode for all sorts of characters is easily available for you on a web site (URL) so you don’t have to remember the strange ones. You can just look them up.

This URL gives a high level entry into their listings. Choose the “A-Z Index” for most things (or put a target in the “search” box).

http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/

Here is an example URL for the “Full Stop” character (aka the ‘period’).

http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/002e/index.htm

What does an entry look like? Well, a lot of stuff mostly of interest to computer geeks and programmers, but a bit near the middle you care about.


HTML Entity (decimal) &#046;
HTML Entity (hex) &#x2e;
How to type in Microsoft Windows
Alt +002E
Alt 046
Alt 46

The Full Stop does not have a ‘text’ representation, so no easy to remember form for it…

First off, notice that “46” shows up in a few places. And that “2e” comes around. That’s a very common pattern. The Hex and the Decimal values being common to many ways of using that Unicode, only the “wrapping” changes. We care about the HTML way of using it. So &#046; for the decimal, or we could put in an ‘x’ that says “Hex coming” and use the Hexidecimal value of “2e” (2 in the “16s place” for 32, plus e in the 1’s place that is “14′, add them, golly, it’s 46. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F are 1 through 15 in Hex) The “Geeky” will just remember that period is 46 and translate to hex as needed. The UberGeek will remember it is 2e and translate that to decimal if ever needed ;-)

OK, we know it’s 46. Now what? In Windows (which you ought not need to use unless in some place other than WordPress), the “Escape” is “Alt” then you use 46 with a leading zero, or not. For Hex, you use a plus sign and mandatory two zeros. Just lumpy and wrong. Lucky for us, what we care about is the HTML version.

For that, the escape is the & character and the close escape the ; and we just wrap those around the 46 value with a number sign stuck in front of it to say it is a decimal number. Easy. Just as easy, use the # followed by an x to say it is a Hex number and use the Hex value for 46 – 2e.

Now go to the upper left of that Unicode page and type “ampersand” in the search box. You will get a listing of URLs and the top one ought to be

http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/26/index.htm

It is interesting for a couple of reasons. First off, you get an example of a ‘text’ mapping. Second, it is the “magic” of escaping the escape…


HTML Entity (decimal) &#038;
HTML Entity (hex) &#x26;
HTML Entity (named) &amp;

We’ll be ignoring the Microsoft entries from here on out for the simple reason I never have needed to use them.

Notice that last entry? “(named)”? That is the text, or ‘named’ value of that Unicode character. So you can type any of those three and get the same thing:

&#038; gives &
&#x26; gives &
&amp; gives &

It is also the clue to how to ‘escape the escape’. Instead of typing an & and having WordPress decide if it is part of a Unicode sequence, or not, I can type the Unicode FOR the & and explicitly say “use this as a character, not an escape”. Then just type the rest of the Unicode sequence (that is not being interpreted as Unicode then). &amp;#38; Though for some, like the Hex value, WordPress is even harder to get past and you must ‘escape’ the Hash Sign as well with the #35; value for it.

No, I will not be showing that whole escape value chain here. You end up in Recursion Hell constantly needing to add more values of ‘escaping’ to show how the prior escaping was done, rinse and repeat.. (From The Devils DP Dictionary: Recursion – See Recursion. )

Ok, hopefully at this point you have a handle on how to stop your < signs from being stolen, how to keep all the text between a < and a > from being stolen (particularly a problem when doing math formulas or posting programming text). Also how to put in “special characters” like € &euro; and ¢ &cent; and the currency pound £ &pound; and even how to find others.

Some Special Cases

There are a few things WordPress allows easily, and a few that it causes ongoing problems by “helping”. I’m just going to list a few of them here and how to get around them.

If there are particular tricks you know, feel free to add them in a comment.

The “Strike out text” is a fun one. Just use “strike” inside lt and gt and /strike to end it.

I want a big Scotch on the rocks Tea is Fine, thanks!

Is typed as:

<strike>I want a big Scotch on the rocks</strike> Tea is Fine, thanks!

Similarly bold using b and /b or Italics as i and /i along with “block quote” done with blockquote and /blockquote markers. Then there is underlining that uses u and /u markers.

<b>To Get Bold</b>

<i>To Get Italics</i>

<u>To Get Underline</u>

<blockquote>

To Get Blockquotes

</blockquote>

OK, a “sidebar” on Angle Brackets. Technically, they are a different character and different Unicode from the LT and GT symbols.

This is the Left Angle Bracket:

http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/3008/index.htm


HTML Entity (decimal) &#12296;
HTML Entity (hex) &#x3008;

So compare the LT < to 〈 the left angle bracket. So just remember to use the LT, ok?

While the right angle bracket is:

http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/3009/index.htm


HTML Entity (decimal) &#12297;
HTML Entity (hex) &#x3009;

So compare the GT > to 〉 the right angle bracket. So just remember to use the GT, ok?

The URL Period Problem

Folks will regularly post a URL with “…” in it somewhere. For unknown reasons, some places like to put ‘dots’ in their URLs. WordPress, to help folks who post a URL at the end of a sentence and end it with a period, takes that first ‘dot’ to be ‘end of sentence’ and then the rest of the URL becomes plain text. As that doesn’t work as a URL that’s “not helping”…

To “fix it”, just remember to replace any “dots” in a URL with the Unicode for “full stop” that we saw above:

&#046;

So, in another posting, Jim2 posted a link:

Try this one:
http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?bibcode=1979LPICo.390&…10B&db_key=AST&page_ind=0&data_type=GIF&type=SCREEN_VIEW&classic=YES

That ends up broken. Change those ‘dots’ to &#046; and it works:

Try this one:
http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?bibcode=1979LPICo.390...10B&db_key=AST&page_ind=0&data_type=GIF&type=SCREEN_VIEW&classic=YES

Another Minor Annoyance

Just as a minor point, if you use Google to find a familiar paper, and just copy the “URL” from the Google Listing, they now hand you a Google Search URL (that is long and looks ugly) instead of the actual article URL. It is best, then, to click that link to the actual article, and THEN copy the real URL from the URL line of your browser.

I suspect this is done as a way to drive more traffic through Google and “get their numbers up” while tracking more people and what they do. “Just say No”. Either copy the final target link (by doing the extra work) or use a more “user respectful” search engine.

Personally, I like DuckDuckGo since they don’t do such shenanigans and are not prone to tracking folks, nor stuffing you into an interest box by profiling you. Called “bubbling” (That is, you get more ‘variety’ of hits, as they do not customize the results to the person, so you spend less time “sucking your own exhaust”.)

So Don’t Bubble Me, Bro! and instead use DuckDuckGo. Or even Yahoo… Yes, on rare occasion I’ll need to use Google for some obscure search or feature, but most of the time? No thanks…

If you find yourself posting a URL to a paper that starts with “http://google...” You have most likely been trapped by their traffic feeding gimmick. Try again…

In Conclusion

OK, that’s enough for now. Tea time is calling my name ;-)

If I think of any other interesting ones, I’ll add them to this posting over time. Realistically, though, that ought to get most folks past most of the aggravation most of the time, and save me from needing to do the “Unicode Recursion Dance” to explain to folks one at a time how to do it.

Updates & Additions

A couple of tables shamelessly lifted from WUWT on the page made by Ric Werme (with h/t to Tckev & Gail in comments). I’ve expanded the Superscript / Subscript blocks a little as the explanation was not as clear as straight examples. The different choices for a Superscript 1, for example, giving slight font variations (that may not show in all browsers or all browser settings).

Name Sample Result
b (bold) This is <b>bold</b> text This is bold text
i (italics) This is <i>italicized</i> text This is italicized text
a (anchor) See <a href=http://wermenh.com>My (Ric’s) home page</a> See My (Ric’s) home page
blockquote (indent text) My text<blockquote>quoted text</blockquote>More of my text My text

quoted text

More of my text

strike This is <strike>text with strike</strike> This is text with strike
code (use for monospace display) <code>Wordpress handles this completely differently</code> WordPress handles this completely differently

And this block on “special characters”. (Though do note that they call LT and GT the same as Angle Brackets, when Unicode has a distinct code for Angle Brackets – even if most folks treat LT and GT as Angle Brackets. So be careful when looking up Unicode characters to get the name precisely right. Otherwise, for most purposes, it doesn’t matter much.)

Nevertheless, there are very useful characters that are most reliably entered
as HTML
character entities
:

Type this To get Notes
&amp; & Ampersand
&lt; < Less than sign. Left angle bracket
&deg; ° Degree (Use with C and F, but not K (kelvins))
Alt + numeric keypad 0176 also works
&#8304;
&#8305;
&#185;
&#8306;
&#178;
&#8307;
&#179;
&#8308;
&#8309;
&#8310;
&#8311;
&#8312;
&#8313;

¹
¹
²
²
³
³





Superscripts (use 8304, 185, 178-179, 8308-8313 for digits 0-9)
&#8320;
&#8321;
&#8322;
&#8323;
&#8324;
&#8325;
&#8326;
&#8327;
&#8328;
&#8329;









Subscripts (use 8320-8329 for digits 0-9)
&pound; £ British pound
&ntilde; ñ For La Niña & El Niño Alt + numeric keypad 0164 also works
&micro; µ Mu, micro
&plusmn; ± Plus or minus
&nbsp; Like a space, with no special processing (i.e. word wrapping or multiple
space discarding)
&gt; > Greater than sign. Right angle bracket. Generally not needed

Now to add to it…

http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/block/superscripts_and_subscripts/list.htm

Has a list of Unicode characters for superscripts and subscripts with a display of the characters. For me in this browser, some of the letters come out as the ‘MISSING LETTER’ character, so the browser I am using doesn’t know that bit of Unicode. For unusual characters, different browsers may or may not implement them. Still, I can fine the Unicode and put it in a page, even if this browser doesn’t ‘see’ it on display. (That is sort of the purpose of Unicode, to let you handle characters you can not type and may not be able to display… via an alternate encoding.)

For further exploration, you can wander categories of characters at the fileformat.info site, such as this list of ‘numbers, other’:

http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/category/No/list.htm

Which includes some numbers in other odd languages / scripts like Teluga or Malayalam, and interesting ones like the ‘number in a circle’ series:

&#9316; giving: ⑤

There are also fractions, some named, so, for example, to get the “vulgar fraction 1/4” (where ‘vulgar’ means common, as opposed to some of the other language / culture fractions also available):

&#188; or &frac14; giving ¼
&#189; or &frac12; giving ½
&#190; or &frac34; giving ¾

Then un-named fractions in another block:

&#8531; giving ⅓
&#8532; giving ⅔

&#8533; giving ⅕
&#8534; giving ⅖
&#8535; giving ⅗
&#8536; giving ⅘

&#8537; giving ⅙
&#8538; giving ⅚

&#8539; giving ⅛
&#8540; giving ⅜
&#8541; giving ⅝
&#8542; giving ⅞

&#8543; giving ⅟

That last one is interesting since with subscripts you ought to be able to construct other fractions.

⅟₂₃ made from: &#8543;&#8322;&#8323;

There are also the whole set of accent marks and all, but those will be added “on another day” ;-)

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About E.M.Smith

A technical managerial sort interested in things from Stonehenge to computer science. My present "hot buttons' are the mythology of Climate Change and ancient metrology; but things change...
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20 Responses to URLs, HTML, Unicode & WordPress Antics

  1. DirkH says:

    as for an alternative to google, I find yandex quite helpful. Russian.

  2. Richard Hill says:

    EM, you said “In other words, the work to explain it is much harder than the work to do it.”
    Your throw away remark is deeply philosophical :).
    It explains the lack of progress in AI, robotics, education, ethics and much else…

  3. Ralph B says:

    I must have dain bramage because I have never been able to figure out the block quote thing. At least now I understand the slash sarc bit. test bold hoot hoot if this turns up bold.

  4. Petrossa says:

    Bookmarked in case i am once more confused with WordPress antics. Thanks for taking the effort. Even creating a post can get you in trouble.

  5. Steve C says:

    Distinctly helpful, and thanks. For those of us who also go to “php places” it’s even worse, of course, as we need to remember to use square brackets – around sometimes different switch words – for the switches there. (I won’t try to print one lest WP tries to “correct” it …) Cue the old joke about “The computer industry loves standards … so much so that every company uses its own”.

    But dead right on Google. The only way I’d use them these days is through Tor. In a sandbox. Running off a live CD. At someone else’s address. And I still wouldn’t trust them not to stick their long proboscis in my business and foul up my search.

  6. j ferguson says:

    Anchored near boat with “Escape Sequence” on the stern. Rowed over to ask Printcaps or Termcaps.

    “Both, of course.”

    He’d made enough money to bail – this was 1995 – and was on his way to a circumnavigation.

    E.M. were you involved in the great Berkeley VS System V battles of the early ’90s?

  7. PhilJourdan says:

    Your comment about google is spot on. That is one (but not the only) reason I use Bing first and only as a last resort switch to google.

  8. Jerry says:

    See Recursion…. :)
    http://www.xkcd.com/1197/

  9. John F. Hultquist says:

    Thanks for the post. This stuff can be frustrating.

    When my wife became seriously ill a couple of years ago I called my local geek and ask how I could post updates for family and friends. He fixed me up with WordPress and I was in business. Well, just the simple text business. Back then I did a nightly update – and lucky to get that done without worrying about what WordPress could do.

    Health issues improved and we went to a weekly commentary on what we did during the week. With no pressure and a little time, I investigated adding images and hiding the full URL with an underlined text link. Simple additions but the look of the page is improved.

    Just recently WordPress did something to the images processes so that WP, and not me, sets the size. This happened as I am very busy with outside chores and I haven’t tried to figure out what was done. I need a rainy day or two to catch up with such things.

    Story: A couple of years ago I used the letter ‘d’ for a temperature symbol; not knowing how to insert the proper symbol. Another person instructed me in the proper procedure using the Alt key and the 0176 code; giving °. This can’t be copied and pasted from a MSWord doc but has to be coded directly into WP. As you mentioned, this is easier to do than to explain or show and mistakes are easily introduced.

    An aside:
    In your To Get Italics code:
    On my screen that shows as ending with a slash ‘o’, not an “i” , and
    the left and right angle brackets are showing as small squares.

    Now it has gotten light out and I have to go get a space prepared for a new Strawberry patch.

    Oh, Yahoo search has its own look but uses Bing.

    Cheers.

  10. E.M.Smith says:

    @John F. Hultquist:

    Typo fixed on that /o thing, thanks. Per the “small squares”, they show as angle brackets for me (though I don’t use M.Soft browsers so don’t know what they might do…) There are some “issues” with some browsers not knowing all the characters…

    I noticed the change of image handling too. You can still set the size, but it will squash it to fit in the space available if too big, near as I can tell. More “helping against my will” ;-)

    ° done with &#176;

    @Jerry:

    Cute… but “I’ve been there”… VERY shortened version of story:

    Doing a site bring up, first power applied, installing basic gear and Telco has finally pulled wire and put in T1. Unpack new Cisco router purchased with the particular software kit needed to match Telco and ISP internet. No Joy. Call Cisco. Oh, that software kit is a download. Just download it from the internet… I explain that THIS ROUTER CONFIG is specifically for bringing UP the internet connection and maybe, just maybe, folks buying it are doing so because they don’t HAVE internet yet… An hour drive back to the office to get internet, connect the router and do download config, then back to the bring up site, and got it going ….

    @PhilJourdan:

    I’m not sure Bing! is that much better. M.S. is prone to “customer capture” behaviours too… but I’ve not used it, so can’t say, really.

    @J. Ferguson:

    Yes. OK, my “Biases and Bigotries”:

    I like BSD most, other than that the instal is still primitive and a PITA. “System V” was a product deliberately changed for no good reason as a way to recapture license revenue. (They had issues perpetual licenses with ability to issue more to schools, like Berkeley, so had to capriciously change things to claim it was ‘new’ and needed a new restrictive license and fees.) As K&R had done a damn fine job on Version 7 (AKA BSD) most of the changes consisted of finding worse or broken ways to do things….

    Now, decades later, we have a “Dog’s Breakfast” of variations, mutations, hybrids and flat out Crap, as a direct result. I’ve spent more years of my life than I care to admit trying to answer the question: “Does this release do it the BSD way, the SysV way, the POSIX way, or a bastard mix of both, or with ‘option switches’ to change it?” Now we also get the Linux way in several variations AND the folks like Sun who made their own crappy not-quite-SysV-but-Abandoned-BSD ‘unique’ systems. So it is more an “explore and adapt” on every system…

    Where once there was ONE place to do sys admin tasks, now every vendor is unique… All because AT&T decided it was OK… so everyone else did too. Some even have more than one unique way that you get to set with a personality switch… GAK!

    Oh Well…

    BTW, I was ready to “sell out and retire / escape” and the spouse & kids refused. So instead we are stuck in high priced land without a job. Could have owned clear and been done. Had the timing just about perfect too (“bail” was planned for about 1 – 2 years pre housing collapse and stock crash…) Oh well. Poverty in a climate paradise must be better than retired in luxury in Florida… or so I keep telling myself…

    @Ralph B:

    To do a block quote, just do exactly what you did for bold, except where you had “b” and “/b” put instead “blockquote” and “/blockquote”. That will cause the stuff between them to be italics and inset as a block. (Oddly, to turn OFF those italics, you can add an “i” and “/i” set that looks like it would make it italics, but does an inversion of state instead….

    So just try it!

    @Steve C.:

    So square brackets are a “php-ism” eh? Always wondered why some folks tried to use ’em.
    ;-)

    The way I heard the joke was:

    “Aren’t standards wonderful? And there are so many to choose from!”

    @Petrossa:

    You are welcome. What drives me a bit bonkers is the way things have one behaviour in making postings, and a different one in comments. Most things are the same, but some are not. Like it “fixing up” URLs a bit differently…

    @Richard Hill:

    Nothing I say is “Throw away”!

    (Some just has a shorter shelf life is all… ;-)

    @DirkH:

    A Russian Search Engine, eh? Hmmmm….

    Wonder if I ought to do a “canonical search engine” page…

  11. PhilJourdan says:

    @E.M. Re: Bing – I did not mean to imply I thought it was safer, only that it is generally more useful (especially if you want to search an 800 number). I am sure MS is playing the same games as Google. They just do not have as many tentacles into you as Google does.

  12. Gail Combs says:

    Thanks from a ‘computer challenged’ old lady.

    I found the bottom half of Ric Werme’s Guide to Watts Up With That(Formatting in comments) to be very helpful. I generally use ‘anchor’ to take care of the problems with mangling URLs. The biggest problem I have is Google does not allow you to ‘lift’ a URL for a pdf so you have to hover over the title and write down the URL. If the URL is too long you can not even do that. (The machine I use is Linux with Opera)

  13. adolfogiurfa says:

    About HTML´s and things of the WWW; @E.M. Can you explain us if that Bitcoin thing can work?

  14. E.M.Smith says:

    @Adolfo:

    Bitcoin can, and does, work. Since anything can be money, and only depends on a shared belief to work, it can even be money. (They have gone out of their way to make it limited in supply, so hard to turn into an inflating currency.)

    So as long as anyone is willing to trade with it / for it; it can be a currency.
    As long as the quantity is limited in growth and the acceptance is broad, it can also be a store of value, so money.

    @Gail:

    You are welcome… Oh, and you could always lift part of the URL, put it into DuckDuckGo and then just copy the whole thing… I regularly copy pdf URLs…

  15. peter_dtm says:

    duckduckgo is without doubt the best thing since sliced bread !

    I see you also use https not http (https does some encoding which stops a 3rd party seeing what you are sending but not all sites support it). It’s only paranoia if they aren’t out to get you….(and when on the web just be very very very paranoid )

    try this in duckduckgo
    !microsoft using hex in a word document

    !google what is my ip address

    !answer what is my ip address

    !wordpress chiefio (wordpress’s search engine appears to be broke ..)

    (now do a straight “what is my ip address” in duckduckgo)

    the ! (bang) symbol (exclamation mark in English) makes it go to JUST that domain – very usefull for getting ubuntu answers from the ubuntu sites & microsoft answers from microsoft sites

    Why use !google instead of using google ? Because duckduckgo anonymises the search it submits to google; so it’s like using google without letting google use you (google ‘sees’ the search coming from some bloke called duckduckgo not peter_dtm)

    Like most search engines it is posible to make duckduckgo THE browser default engine – I currently use


    slimboat
    opera
    firefox
    ie (because work is a microsoft environment)

    and have it as the default search in all of these browsers (at work I use the https://duckduckgo address)

    (Archie for searching anyone ?)

    does header3 &lth3&gt work ?

  16. tckev says:

    If anybody wants to test some of these ‘special’ keys WUWT has a test page, with some good instructions and allows you to test your comments. So you can get to find out without breaking things (hopefully). Temperature of 2²=4°C···±⅛,¼,⅜,⅝,⅞ ,etc

    http://wattsupwiththat.com/test-2/

  17. Ralph B says:

    Who needs a search engine when we have this site? /brown nose off
    The truth is I hardly do any searching anymore. I have about 15 sites favorited and rarely wander outside of them (except by links provided). Still spend more of my free time with an actual book than on the internet.
    What befuddled me about the blockquotes was not realizing you had to copy/paste from the original…I was thinking you could automatically get it in your comment somehow.

  18. E.M.Smith says:

    @PhilJourdan:

    I didn’t take your comment as a ‘safer’ claim, fWIW. I was just admitting my ignorance of Bing! as, on general principles, I avoid M.S. products unless forced into them by circumstances. (Too many historical burned fingers…)

    @All:

    Thanks to Tckev and Gail I’m expanding the page above to includes bits from WUWT.

    I suppose next I ought to add something on all those silly accent marks folks in Europe use ;-)

    (They are useful… I just wish my keyboard had them on the key caps since I never learned to touch type them…)

    @peter_dtm :

    Interesting trick…. Didn’t know that one. Nice.

    @Ralph B:

    No worries. “Error of assumption” is often the hardest one to catch. Why pictures are so useful and why examples work best.

    And per “not using search engines” : Well, good for you, but that means folks like me need to be even better at them…

  19. J Martin says:

    Have heard duckduckgo recommended before but never bothered trying it because of the silly name. Might try it out for work over the coming week and see how I get on with it.

  20. Ric Werme says:

    You’re welcome!

    (I saw a WWW page counter ref from here, so I thought I’d check it out.)

    Guess I better spend more attention to less than and left angle bracket….

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