An Interesting Resource for Weather History vs Sunspots

I’ve had this tab open for a few months now. Always thinking that I ought to make a posting after looking through it all for ‘deep insight’ and ‘new understandings’ of how the weather patterns have correlated with {whatever}, be it sunspots or planets or lunations or…

Well, It’s been a ’round tuit’ for a long time, and I’m clearly not getting around to it. That means I post the info and the link for others as a “dig here!”.

http://www.geo.arizona.edu/palynology/geos462/holobib.html

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GLOBAL CLIMATE
ORIGINALLY COMPILED FOR GEOS 596R – SPRING 1991
EDITED AND EXTENDED BY OWEN K. DAVIS 1991-1993
cite O.K. Davis, unpublished

Age Reference Comments
1965 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 Frost Ring in bristlecone pine, RM & GB
1912 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 Frost Ring in bristlecone pine, RM & GB
1902-1907 AD Earl et al., 1994 cold temperature Siberia
1884 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 growth suppression of bristlecone pine, = cold
1880 AD Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C, DAMON
1857-1919 AD Stine, 1990 Historic High Stand of Mono Lake
1837 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 Frost Ring in bristlecone pine, RM & GB
1836-1845 AD LaMarche, 1978 Campito Mtn Tree Ring Index <700 (cold)
1828 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 Frost Ring in bristlecone pine, RM & GB
1820 AD Scuderi 1984, 1987 (Matthes) Sierra Nevada glacial advances
1817 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 Frost Ring in bristlecone pine, RM & GB
1816-1818 AD Earl et al., 1994 cold temperature Siberia
1824 AD Stuiver and Kra, 1986 "DALTON" 14C Minimum
1820 AD Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C, DALTON
1805-1835 AD Davis, 1990b DALTON 14C Production Minimum
1805 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 Frost Ring in bristlecone pine, RM & GB
1790-1810 AD LaMarche, 1978 LaMarche Ring Width < 0.035 mm (cold)
1761 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 Frost Ring in bristlecone pine, RM & GB
1741-1748 AD Earl et al., 1994 cold temperature Siberia
1732 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 Frost Ring in bristlecone pine, RM & GB
1710 AD Scuderi 1984, 1987 (Matthes) Sierra Nevada glacial advances
1705-1708 AD LaMarche, 1978 Campito Mtn Tree Ring Index <700 (cold)
1680 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 Frost Ring in bristlecone pine, RM & GB
1663-1681 AD Earl et al., 1994 cold temperature Siberia
1660 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 Frost Ring in bristlecone pine, RM & GB
1650-1670 AD LaMarche, 1978 LaMarche Ring Width < 0.035 mm (cold)

(LITTLE ICE AGE EVENT 310 – 240 Cal. years ago)
MAUNDER MINIMUM AD 1640-1710
1700-1710 AD Enright 1984 LIA: short cool period, increasing quickly, NE Can
1660-1740 AD Conkey 1986 LIA: slightly cooler than average: Maine
1660-1725 AD Jacoby, Cook 1981 LIA: cooling, minimum at 1700, upper Yukon
1650-1700 AD Graumlich 1990 LIA: foxtail pine: cooler than average: Sierra
1650-1700 AD Graumlich 1990 LIA: w. juniper: no obvious departure: Sierra
1650-1700 AD Lamb 1965 LIA: coolest temps of his record (AD 800 – present)
1650-1700 AD Graumlich, Brubaker 1986 LIA: warmer than average, Pacific NW
1650-1700 AD Jacoby et al. 1985 LIA: cooler than average: AK & nw Can
1645-1715 AD Stuiver 1980 LIA: found no climate/sun relationship
1620-1750 AD Denton & Karlen 1973 LIA: limiting radiocarbon dates on glacial deposits, lichenometry
1600-1750 AD Chu 1973 LIA: cool (min. @ 1700), China historical records
1600-1700 AD Scuderi 1987 LIA: cooler than average, rising at end: Sierra<
1570-1650 AD Briffa et al. 1990 LIA: cool, early LIA, No. Fennoscandia, detrending
1710 AD Stuiver and Kra, 1986 "MAUNDER" Sunspot Minimum 14C peak 245 cal BP
1680 AD Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C, Maunder
1660-1770 AD Eddy 1977 Maunder Sunspot Minimum
1645-1715 AD Eddy 1976 70-year dearth of observed sunspots
1580-1780 AD Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 Maunder "Maunder-Type" 14C production maximum

LITTLE ICE AGE
Broad Sense

Age Reference Comments
1550-1850 AD Grove 1988 Modern, Little Ice Age (Sporer, Maunder & Dalton, AD 1700)
1550-1850 AD Wigley 1988 LIA: Global cooling (after Rothlisberger 1986)
1500-1840 AD Porter & Denton 1967 LIA: limiting radiocarbon dates on glacial deposits
1450-1950 AD McKenzie and Eberlie, 1987 freshening, Great Salt Lake
1300-1950 varves Pisias, 1978 cooling, Coastal California
1300-1800 AD Clapperton 1983 Andes LIA, radiocarbon dates on glacial deposits

1625 AD Lamb 1977 deuterium max. White Mtn Bristlecones (Friedman p. 430)
1620 AD Scuderi 1984, 1987 (Matthes) Sierra Nevada glacial advances
1601 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 growth supression of bristlecone pine, = cold
1575-1654 AD Stine, 1990 Clover Ranch High Stand of Mono Lake
1571-1578 AD Earl et al., 1994 cold temperature Siberia
1512-1548 AD LaMarche, 1978 Campito Mtn Tree Ring Index <700 (cold)
1540-1590 AD Ten Brink 1983 Glaciation Alaska Range 410-360 BP
1550 AD Stuiver and Kra, 1986 "SPORER" 14C Minimum (425 cal BP)
1500 AD Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C, Sporer
1420-1570 AD Eddy 1977 Sporer Minimum
1350-1620 AD Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 Sporer Minimum "Sporer-Type" 14C production minima
1500 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 growth supression of bristlecone pine, = cold
1485 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 Frost Ring in bristlecone pine, RM & GB
1480 AD Scuderi 1984, 1987 (Matthes) Sierra Nevada glacial advances
1456-1470 AD LaMarche, 1978 Campito Mtn Tree Ring Index <700 (cold)
1453 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 Frost Ring in bristlecone pine, RM & GB
1453 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 growth supression of bristlecone pine, = cold
1430-1470 AD LaMarche, 1978 LaMarche Ring Width < 0.035 mm (cold)
1400-1485 AD Stine, 1990 Danberg Beach High Stand of Mono Lake 550-465 cal BP
1475 – 1495 AD Cook et al. 1991 Tasmanian Hunon Pine WARM PERIOD
1460 – 1532 AD Schaedel 1951 Inca Empire Unification
1345 – 1521 AD Hammond 1977 Aztec Period, Valley of Mexico
1300 – 1470 AD Schaedel 1951 Galindo, Cajamarquilla Cities, Chimu People, Moche Valley, Coastal Peru
1350 AD Starkel 1987 N. Hemisphere maximum braided stream aggradation, glacial maximum
1331-1660 AD Enzel et al., 1989 High Stand of Silver Lake Lake, Mojave River Drainage 390 ± 90 BP
1300 AD Lamb 1977 deuterium maximum in White Mtn Bristlecones (Friedman Data p. 430)
1290-1390 AD Wigley 1988 Global cooling (after Rothlisberger 1986)
LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 Frost Ring in bristlecone pine, RM & GB
1274-1349 AD Stine, 1990 Rush Delta High Stand of Mono Lake
1350-1410 AD Davis, 1990b Aztec/Inca 14C Production Maximum
1330 AD Stuiver and Kra, 1986 "WOLF" 14C Minimum
1320 AD Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C, Wolf
1180-1380 AD Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 Wolf Minimum "Maunder-Type" 14C production minima
1276-1299 AD Stuiver and Kra, 1986 A.E. Douglas' "Great Drought"
1250-1300 AD Lamb 1977 Recurrence Surface (cold) in European Bogs
1200 AD Granlund 1932 RY I Swedish Rekurrens-ytor (wet period)
1150-1300 AD Dean et al., 1985 Colorado Plateau Pueblo Pop'n Max
1150-1250 AD Fowler 1975 Moorehead phase of Cahokia Mound
1150 AD Hood & Jirikowic, 1990 "MEDIEVAL" 14C Maximum
1149 AD Stuiver and Kra, 1986 "Grand" 14C Maximum of Eddy (1976)
1140-1340 AD Eddy 1977 Medieval Maximum 14C procuction
1100-1275 AD Davis, 1990b Medieval 14C Production Maximum
1100-1190 AD Cook et al. 1991 Tasmanian Hunon Pine WARM PERIOD
1100-1250 AD Lamb 1965 Medieval Warm Period
1000-1200 AD Bernabo 1981 Warm period Michigan pollen
976-1215 AD Bryson et al. 1965 Trees 90 km N, NWT, Canada 1070±90, 880±180, 870±100
1187-1312 Waters 1980 third lacustral unit L. Cahuila, CA 770±100,760±100,750±100,700±100
1200 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 growth supression of bristlecone pine, = cold
1171 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 growth supression of bristlecone pine, = cold
1105 AD Lamb 1977 Global Climatic Boundary 850 BP
1099 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 growth supression of bristlecone pine, = cold
1084 AD Stine, 1990 Post Office High Stand of Mono Lake 866 cal BP
1077 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 growth supression of bristlecone pine, = cold
1060 AD Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C, Medieval Minimum
970-1110 AD Stuiver and Kra, 1986 Stuiver Minimum (985 – 845 yr before 1954)
940-1140 AD Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 Medieval Minimum "Maunder-Type" 14C production minima
1065-1281 AD May, 1989 Soil in Sand Hills Nebraska 930±70, 1660±80
1029 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 growth supression of bristlecone pine, = cold
1003 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 growth supression of bristlecone pine, = cold
940-1000 AD Cook et al. 1991 Tasmanian Hunon Pine WARM PERIOD
900-1190 AD Hammond 1977 Toltec Period, Chichen Itza, Yucatan
850-910 AD Petersen 1988 Dolores Area Pueblo Pop'n. Max (+ Summer Prcp.)
869-1069 AD Sutton 1991 Lake in Fremont valley, Mojave Desert
850-1050 AD Burrows 1979 S. Hemisphere Neoglacial, limit 14C dates glacial deposits 1100-900 BP
810-830 AD LaMarche, 1978 LaMarche Ring Width < 0.035 mm (cold)
750-950 AD Wigley 1988 Global cooling (after Rothlisberger 1986)
700-900 AD Denton & Karlen 1973 Glacial deposits radiocarbon dates
687 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 growth supression of bristlecone pine, White River = cold
668-776 AD Sutton 1991 (Koehn) Lake in Fremont valley, Mojave
650-850 AD Clapperton 1983 Andes Neoglacial 14C dates glacial deposits
647-902 AD Waters, 1980 first lacustrine unit L. Cahuila, CA 1150 ± 100, 1340 ± 100
628 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 growth supression of bristlecone pine, White River, Rabaul, = cold
619-897 AD Nichols 1969 Southward retreat boreal forest 1280±75
601 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 supression of bristlecone pine, White Ri., Rabaul, = cold
580-1260 AD Grove 1988 p 339 Moraine in Brooks Range, Alaska 1120 ± 180
580-1220 AD Grove 1988 p 319 Glacial Advance in Himalaya 1155±160, 1150±80
580 AD Stine 1990 Mill Creek E. High Stand of Mono Lake 1370 cal BP
525 AD Lamb 1977 Deuterium maximum White Mtn Bristlecones (Friedman p. 430)
500-800 AD Bernabo 1981 Cold period Michigan pollen
830-930 AD Culbert 1988 "Terminal Classic" Collapse of Mayan Civilization
690 AD Stuiver and Kra, 1986 "ROMAN IV" 14C Minimum [1300 yb 1990]
700 AD Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C, Roman/Dark Age Minimum
660-770 AD Eddy 1977 "Medieval Minimum" ROMAN IV
600-800 AD Carpenter 1966 "Empty Periods" of Greek and Aegean drought
600-800 AD Hammond 1977 Maya Late Classic, popn. 50 K (all-time high)
595-710 AD Albert 1991 Tall Cane, Woodland Site, Oklahoma, 1380±90, 1380±70
270-820 AD Swain 1978 dry period, Northern Wisconsin, varve
500 AD Hammond 1977 Teotihuacan, Valley of Mexico, highest1 popn, 100K
450 AD Stuiver and Kra, 1986 "ROMAN III" 14C Maximum
450-550 AD Wigley 1988 Global cooling (after Rothlisberger 1986)
400 AD Granlund 1932 RY II Swedish Rekurrens-ytor (wet period)
270 AD Lamb 1977 Global Climatic Boundary 1680 BP
270 AD Stuiver and Kra, 1986 "ROMAN II" 14C Maximum [1300 yb 1990]
150-900 AD Porter & Denton 1967 radiocarbon dates on glacial deposits
150-450 AD Burrows 1979 S. Hemisphere Neoglacial deposit
130-580 AD Grove 1988 GOSCHENER II, Glacial Advance Alps 1660±90 BP
126-433 AD Nesje Kvamme 1991 Glacial Advance w. Norway, 1730±75, 1740±75
119 AD LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 growth supression of bristlecone pine, Etna, = cold
100 AD Scuderi 1984, 1987 (Recess Pk) Sierra Nevada Glacial Advance, 1850 yr BP
59-135 BC McArthy and McAndrews 1988 Lake Ontario high stand 1970±100 1850±60
50 AD Godwin 1954 Somerset, England Bog Corduroy (wet period)
90 AD Stuiver and Kra, 1986 "ROMAN I" 14C Maximum [1900 BP]
30-430 AD Grove 1988 p 338 Spruce above tree line St. Elias Mts Can. 1775 ± 90
50 AD – 700 AD Hammond 1977 Teotihuacan, Valley of Mexico, Construction
50 BC – 1450 AD Lamb 1977 Drought Crimean Peninsula, varves, Lake Saki 45N 33E
100 BC – 500 AD Prufer 1964 Hopewell Burial Mounds, S. Ohio, (Middle Woodland)
80 BC – 110 AD Bjorc et al 1991 Warm climate Shetland Is, Antarctica
200-650 AD Davis, 1990b Roman/Teotihuacan 14C Production Maximum
1-140 AD Eddy 1977 Roman 14C Production Maximum
42 BC LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 growth supression of bristlecone pine, Etna, = cold
340 BC – 70 AD Grove 1988 p 335 Gilbert Glacier (BC, Can) advance 2040 ± 60
300-0 BC Ten Brink 1983 Glaciation Alaska Range 2300-2000 BP
70 BC – 410 AD Waters, 1980 Santa Rosa unit L. Cahuila, CA 1800±200, 1890±500
250 BC Starkel 1987 N. Hemisphere maximum braided stream, glacial
250 – 50 BC Wigley 1988 Global cooling (after Rothlisberger 1986)
250 BC Scuderi 1984, 1987 (Recess Pk) Sierra Nevada Glacial Advance
340 BC Davis, 1991 H-GMin: San Joaquin Marsh, CA, freshwater interval
330 BC Stuiver and Kra, 1986 "GREEK" 14C Minimum of Landscheidt (1987)
340 BC Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C, Greek Minimum
376 BC Schmidt and Gruhle, 1988 Northern Europe Calibration 14C Maxima
460-260 BC Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 Greek Minimum "Maunder-Type" 2420-2210 B.P
420-320 BC Eddy 1977 Minimum 7
350-100 BC Godwin and Willis 1959 Somerset, England Bog Corduroy (wet period)
391-87 BC Nesje Kvamme 1991 Glacial Advance western Norway, upper date 2150 ± 80
413-160 BC Nesje Kvamme 1991 Glacial Advance western Norway, lower date 2250 ± 65
535 BC LaMarche & Mooney 1967 Bristlecone Pine 120 m above modern tree line 2488 BP
550 BC Brooks 1949 Hallstatt Period, 10m L.Constance (2742 Schmidt & Gruhle 1988)
600 BC Granlund 1932 RY III Swedish Rekurrens-ytor (wet period)
663-351 BC Nesje Kvamme 1991 Glacial Advance western Norway, upper date 2250 ± 65
650 BC Lamb 1977 Recurrence Surface (cold) in European Bogs 2600 BP
700-500 BC Ten Brink 1983 Glaciation Alaska Range 2700-2500 BP
736-175 BC Hall & Lintz 1984 Carnegie OK buried trees 2290±70
760-235 BC Grove 1988 p 335 Tiedman Glacier (BC, Can) advance 2355 ± 60
772-410 BC Godwin & Willis 1959 Corduroy on English Bogs (wet) 2520±110,2470±110,2482±120,2410±100
792-355 BC Nichols 1969 Southward retreat boreal forest 2380±90
810 BC- 1 AD Grove 1988 p 309 Moraine Nipalsglaciaren glacier Gotland, Scandinavia 2460±90-2320±160
810 BC Lamb 1977 Global Climatic Boundary 2760 BP
740 BC Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C, Homeric/Hallstattzeit
750 BC Stuiver and Kra, 1986 "HOMERIC" 14C Minimum of Landscheidt (1987) [2741 yb 1990]
792 BC Schmidt and Gruhle, 1988 H-GMin: Northern Europe 14C Calibration Maxima 2742 tree-ring
880-600 BC Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 Hallstattzeit/Homeric "Sporer-Type" 14C production minima
800-400 BC Hood and Jirikowic 1989 Peak correlation with Wolf-Sporer-Maunder Triplet in Delta 14C
800-580 BC Eddy 1977 Minimum 8
830-430 BC Oviatt, 1988 Sevier Lake, UT, highwater stand 2560 ± 65 B.P.
840-390 BC Gillespie et al. 1983 Ethiopian lake low stand (monsoon depression)
850-750 BC Wigley 1988 Global cooling (after Rothlisberger 1986) 2800-2700 BP
899-290 BC Mason & Beget 1991 Tanana Ri, AK, Increased Flood Frequency, 2060±250 2670±70
910-763 BC Godwin & Willis 1959 Corduroy on English Bogs 2600±110, 5 other dates ,2590±120
910-802 BC Sattler & Jordan 1987 Tanana Ri, AK, Increased Floods 2940±70 2700±60 2960±90
921-506 BC Nesje Kvamme 1991 Glacial Advance western Norway, lower date 2595±85
930 BC Davis, in prep. H-GMin: Tulare Lake, CA, conifer expansion 2880 yr B.P.
939-508 BC Waters, 1980 pre-2000 lacustral unit L. Cahuila, CA 2630±120, 2600±120
1000-770 BC Nichols 1969 Southward retreat boreal forest 2670±105
1000-790 BC Mehringer and Wigand, 1986 H-GMin: Diamond Pond, OR, juniper expansion 2700 ± 50 yr B.P.
1007-828 BC Hall & Lintz 1984 Carnegie OK buried trees 2620±60,2710±60,2760±60,2870±50
1050-250 BC McKenzie and Eberlie, 1987 H-GMin: Great Salt Lake, freshwater interval
1050-595 BC Grove 1988 p 338 Silt below Moraine Seven Sisters Glacier, NW Can. 2675 ± 90
1051-824 BC Petersen, 1988 San Juan Mts., CO, higher winter snowpack 2860±80, 2825±65
1080-80 BC Bjorc et al 1991 Cold climate Shetland Is, Antarctica
1090-0 BC Burrows 1979 S. Hemisphere Neoglacial, limiting radiocarbon dates on glacial deposits
1090 BC-AD 260 Clapperton 1983 Andes Neoglacial, limiting radiocarbon dates on glacial Deposits
1090-611 BC Pisias, 1978 H-GMin: Coastal California temperature depression (varve counts)
1099 BC LaMarche & Mooney 1967 Establishment of Bristlecone Pine 120 m above modern tree line
1150 BC LaMarche & Mooney 1967 Establishment of Bristlecone Pine 120 m above modern tree line
1100-660 AD Clarke et al. 1967 Nova Scotia Scallops North of current limit 1800±125, 1432±125
1126-826 BC Davis, 1991b Irish 14C Production Maximum
1159-1140 BC Baille & Murno 1988 growth supression of Irish oaks, effects of Hekla 3, = cold
1259 BC LaMarche & Mooney 1967 Establishment of Bristlecone Pine 130 m above modern tree line
1200 BC Carpenter 1966 Decline of E Medit. Mycenaen and Hittite – drought 3150 BP
1250-1050 BC Brooks 1949 Frequent Travel Ireland to Scandinavia = calm seas
1230-1080 BC Bjorc et al 1991 Warm climate Shetland Is, Antarctica
1200 BC Lamb 1977 Recurrence Surface (cold) in European Bogs 3150 BP
1200 BC Granlund 1932 RY IV Swedish Rekurrens-ytor (wet period)
1219-999 BC McArthy and McAndrews 1988 Lake Ontario high stand 2980±60 2930±80, 2830±50
1240-800 BC Grove 1988 p 338 Silt below Moraine Seven Sisters Glacier, NW Can. 2780 ± 90
1290-920 BC Shafer 1989 Montezuma Well, AZ, littoral macrophyte incr. 2885±50 BP
1295-790 BC Bryant 1978 H-GMin: Bonfire Shelter TX conifer expansion 2780±110 BP
1296-896 BC Wendorf 1961 pine pollen peaks, Wolf Ranch, NM 2850±100, 2900±100
1327-924 BC Shiraiwa & Watanabe 1991 Langtang Stage Himalaya Mts, Tibet 2850±140 2980±110
1370 BC Stuiver and Kra, 1986 "EGYPTIAN" 14C Minimum of Landscheidt (1987)
1380 BC Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C
1400-1200 BC Eddy 1977 Minimum 9
1370BC-125 AD Grove 1988 GOSCHENER I Alp Glacier Advance 2900±60-2050±80 BP
1407-1133 BC Hall & Lintz 1984 Carnegie OK buried trees 2910±50,3010±50,3020±50,3060±50,3150±60
1430-900 BC Grove 1988 p 330 TRIPLE LAKES III (WYO) Glacial advance 2945±95
1495-410 BC Grove 1988 Moraines La Sal Mountains Utah 2800±200
1500 – 400 BC Hammond 1977 Olmec Period in Eastern Mexico Coastal Lowlands
1430-1136 BC Grove 1988 p 338 Spruce 95 m above tree line St. Elias Mts Can. 3050±55
1438-946 BC van de Plassche 1987 Dunkerque 1A transgr 3020±50,3160±30,3030±80; 2820±50,2900±35
1590 BC LaMarche & Mooney 1967 Bristlecone Pine 120 m above modern tree line
1542-1188 BC Nesje Kvamme 1991 First glacial advance Neoglaciation w Norway monsoon precip. 2500-1750±500
1896-1727 BC Bryson et al. 1965 Trees 280 m N, NWT, Canada 3554±116, 3425±110
1900-1165 BC Butzer et al. 1972 East African lake low stand
1960-1462 BC Lamb 1977 p392 > 100 km southward retreat of forest, 100 o W
1950-1230 BC Bjorc et al 1991 Cold climate Shetland Is, Antarctica
2035-1618 BC Stine, 1990 Dechambeau Range High Stand Mono L Holocene Max 3490±80
2035 BC LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984 growth supression of bristlecone pine, effects of St Helens, = cold
2050-550 BC LaMarche 1973 Tree line 100 – 150 m higher in White Mts, CA
2199-1690 BC Grove 1988 p 338 Spruce 95 m above tree line St. Elias Mts Can. 3050±55 3580±95
2200-1950 BC Bjorc et al 1991 Warm climate Shetland Is, Antarctica
2139-1907 BC Stewart and England 1983 Driftwood Ellesmere no ice 3630±60 3630±130 3700±120 3680±120
2196-1776 BC Enzel et al., 1989 High Stand of Silver Lake Lake, Mojave River Drainage 3620±70
2200 BC Lamb 1977 Recurrence Surface (cold) in European Bogs (4150 BP)
2236-2010 BC Nesje Kvamme 1991 First glacial advance Neoglaciation w Norway 3710±50
2274-1620 BC Grove 1988 LOBBEN Alpine Glacial Advance 3620±85-3440±60
2274-2206 BC Weiss et al. 1993 Collapse Leilan 1, Mesopotamia 3805±75 3610±75 3825±65 3885±65
2279-931 BC Wigley 1988 Global cooling (after Rothlisberger 1986)
2279-1695 BC Burrows 1979 S. Hemisphere Neoglacial radiocarbon dates glacial deposits
2277-1857 BC Blackford et al 1992 Ash, Demise Scots Pine, N.Scotland 3700±70
2300 BC Granlund 1932 RY V Swedish Rekurrens-ytor (wet period)
2348-2010 BC Davis unpubl Mono Lake highstand pollen date AA-6837 3730±60
2360-1740 BC Shiraiwa & Watanabe 1991 Langtang Stage Himalaya Mts, Tibet 3650±320
2350 BC LaMarche & Mooney 1967 Establishment of Bristlecone Pine 150 m above modern tree
2370-2060 BC Eddy 1977 Maximum 11
2564-1462 BC Kraft et al. ’87 Eustatic Sea Level High Stand
2564-1462 BC Colquhoun & Brooks ’87 Eustatic Sea Level High Stand
2567-1970 BC Grove 1988, p 330 TRIPLE LAKES II WY. advance, peat above lateral moraine 3805±100
2720-2610 BC Eddy 1977 Maximum 12
2850 BC Lamb 1977 p392 > 100 km southward retreat of forest, 100 o W, Canada
2838-2652 BC McArthy and McAndrews 1988 Lake Ontario high stand 4230±60 4094±60
2840 BC Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C 4100 yr B.P.
2850 BC Stuiver and Kra, 1986 “NOACHAN” Minimum
3000-2720 BC Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 “Sporer-Type” 14C production minima 4400-4200 14C yr BP
2950-2450 BC Wigley 1988 Global cooling (after Rothlisberger 1986)
3029-2040 BC Owen et al. 1982 Kenya Lake Turkana low stand (monsoon low)
3040-2913 BC Stewart and England 1983 Driftwood Ellesmere no ice 4340±65 4370±60 4360±60 4410±150
3110 BC Lamb 1977 Global Climatic Boundary
3199 BC Baille & Munro 1988 narrowest Irish oak rings, = cold
3350-2350 BC Grove 1988 ROTMOOS Alpine cool period (no glacial evidence)
3360-2710 BC Butzer et al. 1972 East African lake low stand
3450-2550 BC Burrows 1979 S. Hemisphere Neoglacial, limiting radiocarbon dates on glacial deposits
3370-2148 BC Gear & Huntley 1991 Pinus sylvestris expansion in northern Scotland (dry) 3865±50-4420±102
3300-2540 BC Clarke et al. 1967 Nova Scotia Oysters North of current limit 4710±120
3220-3110 BC Eddy 1977 Minimum 13
3290 BC Stuiver and Kra, 1986 “SUMARIAN II” Minimum
3300 BC Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C, Sumerian Minimum, 3 resolved peaks
3390-3190 BC Stuiver and Kra, 1986 “Sumerian” Minimum of Landscheidt (1987) 14C 4470 yr B.P.
3430-3300 BC Eddy 1977 Minimum 14
3440-3160 BC Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 “Sporer-Type” 14C production minima 14C 4600-4500 BP
3501-2910 BC Grove 1988 TRIPLE LAKES WY advance above lateral moraine 4485±100
3543 BC Allison 1986 Hemlock Decline E. North America (interpolated)
3500-3300 BC Hood and Jirikowic 1989 Peak correlation with Wolf-Sporer-Maunder Triplet in Delta 14C
3500 BC Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C, Sumerian Minimum, 3 resolved peaks
3570 BC Stuiver and Kra, 1986 “SUMARIAN I” Minimum
3600-3400 BC Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 “Maunder-Type” 14C production minima 14C 4800-4700 BP
3600 BC Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C, 3 resolved peaks
3690-3470 BC Eddy 1977 Minimum 15
3510-2910 BC Starkel 1987 N. Hemisphere maximum braided stream aggradation
3546-3375 BC Gellatly et al. 1992 Glacial advance, Pyrenees S. France 4656±60, 4955±90
3599-3047 BC Hall & Lintz 1984 Carnegie OK buried trees 4590±70
3780-3350 BC May, 1989 Soil in Nebraska Sand Hills 4780±100 (wet)
3700-2784 BC Grove 1988 p.315 Glacial Advance in Glomfjord, Scandinavia 4550±170 (Page, 1968)
3700-2498 BC Clapperton 1983 Andes Neoglacial radiocarbon dates on glacial deposits
3723-3372 BC Nichols 1969 Southward retreat boreal forest 4800±90
3740-3540 BC Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 “Maunder-Type” 14C production minima 14C 5000-4800 BP
3900-3100 BC Hood and Jirikowic 1989 Peak correlation with Wolf-Sporer-Maunder Triplet in Delta 14C
3806-3807 BC Hillam et al. 1990 Sweet Track bog corduroy (wet)
3850-2950 BC Denton & Karlen 1973 glacial deposits, tree line lowering
3886-3788 BC Stewart and England 1983 Driftwood Ellesmere no ice 5170±70 5140±60 5040±50 5010±60
4160-3770 BC Nichols 1969 Southward retreat boreal forest 5140±100
3850 BC LaMarche & Mooney 1967 Establishment of Bristlecone Pine 120 m above modern tree line
4080-3590 BC Clarke et al. 1967 Nova Scotia Oysters North of current limit 5650±140, 5320±140
4350-3450 BC Maley 1977 Sahelian optimum, change in climate regime
4050 BC Starkel 1987 braided stream aggradation, glacial maximum
3920 BC Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C 14C 5040 yr BP
4080-3800 BC Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 “Sporer-Type” 14C production minima 14C 5300-4900 yr BP
4220 BC Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C 14C 5300 yr BP
4240-3760 BC Eddy 1977 Minimum 16
4440-4240 BC Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 Maunder-Type” 14C production minima 14C 5600-5400 yr BP
4377 BC Baille & Munro 1988 narowness maximum of irish oaks, = cold
4470-3790 BC Gillespie et al. 1983 Ethiopian lake high stand
4894-3048 BC Butzer et al. 1972 East African lake low stand
5150-4250 BC Maley 1977 Sahelan Optimum Paleosol (wet)
5173-4997 BC Davis and Shafer (in press) Montezuma well cold period interpolated
5200 BC Jirikowic 1991 Three-sigma peak in Delta 14C
5190 BC Stuiver and Kra, 1986 “JERICO” Minimum
5280-5080 BC Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 “Maunder-Type” 14C production minima 14C 6330-6100 yr BP
5640-5260 BC Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 “Sporer-Type” 14C production minima 14C 6700-6200 yr BP
5070-4510 BC Eddy 1977 Minimum 17
5320-5110 BC Eddy 1977 Minimum 18
5210-4244 BC Gillespie et al. 1983 Ethiopian lake low stand
5480-5306 BC Stewart and England 1983 Driftwood Ellesmere no ice 6445±65 6430±150 6450±70 6410±80
5400-5300 BC Kearney & Luckman 1986 Treeline briefly lower in Alberta Rockies
5510-4330 BC Grove 1988 FROSNITZ (Larstig) Alpine Glacial Advance 6400±100-5590±80 BP
5640-5480 BC Meltzer 1991 Drought Mustang Spr. TX 6599±35,6680±40,6840±70 (7589-7429 BP)
5640-5210 BC Gillespie et al. 1983 Ethiopian L. low stand 5530±65,5680±55,5750±70,5980±100,6495±150
5650-5150 BC Maley 1977 Saharan arid period
5650-5250 BC Wigley 1988 Global cooling (after Rothlisberger 1986) 7600-7200 BP
5740-5240 BC Butzer et al. 1972 East African lake low stand
5855-3350 BC Grove 1988 p 340 Warmth-requiring mollusks northern most, Baffin Isl 4810±110
5817-5639 BC Roosevelt et al. 1991 Taperinha Amazon Brazil Pottery Culture 11 14C dates
5960-5661 BC Smith et al. 1987 E. Scotland transgr. 7555±110,6850±140,6870±50,7140±120,6870±50
6050-5650 BC Maley 1977
6080-5640 BC Gear & Huntley 1991 Pinus sylvestris expansion in northern Scotland (dry) 6980±100
6060-5860 BC Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 “Maunder-Type” 14C production minima 14C 7300-7000 yr BP
5950 BC Stuiver and Kra, 1986 “SAHELAN” Minimum
6140-5740 BC May, 1989 Soil in Sand Hills Nebraska 7110±100
6140-5830 BC Butzer et al. 1972 East African lake low stand
6250-6100 BC Maley 1977 Saharan arid period
6290-4000 BC Grove 1988 p 335 Garibaldi BC, Can, Glacier advance 5590±140, 5300±70, 5260±100
6350-6200 BC Maley 1977 Sahelian optimum (wet)
6310-3780 BC Grove 1988 p 338 Spruce 35m above present treeline St Elias, Can 5250±130
6500-6350 BC Maley 1977 Saharan arid period
6810-6090 BC Grove 1988 p 340 Warmth-requiring mollusks n-most position, Baffin Island 7590±170
6950-6500 BC Maley 1977 Sahelian optimum (wet)
7050-6568 BC Grove 1988 expansion of snowbanks Temple Lake WY (Benedict 1973) 7900±130
7120-6840 BC Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 “Sporer-Type” 14C production minima 14C 8130-7990 BP
7182-7207 BC Butzer et al. 1972 East African lake low stand
8290 ± 170 Grove 1988 p 340 Baffin Island Main Advance 8290 ± 170
8350±50 Grove 1988 p 333 White Chuck Advance, WA , 8380±90
6550 BC Lamb 1977 Global Climatic Boundary 8500 BP
8720±150 Grove 1988 VENEDIGER Alpine Glacial Advance 8720±150 8040±120
8769±35 Grove 1988 p 340 Baffin Island Main Advance 8769±35
8970±130 Grove 1988 SCHLATEN Alpine Glacial Advance 8970±130
7660-7380 BC Stuiver and Braziunas 1988 “Sporer-Type” 14C production minima 14C 8600-8400 BP
7350 BC Lamb 1977 Global Climatic Boundary 9300 BP
9,560±360 Miller & Kaufman, 1990 YDry: AFTER YD UPPER BOUNDARY 9,560±360-9,275±120
9,920±160 Mangerud et al., 1974 YDry: GRAVLEV, DEN; UPPER BOUNDARY 9,920±160
9,850±100 Digerfeldt, 1973 YDry: RANVIKEN, SWED; UPPER BOUNDARY 9,850±100
10,100±130 Walker et al. 1991 YDry: NEW BRUNSWICK, CAN UPPER BOUNDARY 10,100±130
10,120±100 Berglund, 1973 YDry: NACKROSDOMMEN, SWED; UPPER BOUNDARY 10,120±100
10,160±105 Hakasson, 1971 YDry: BJORKERODS, SWED; UPPER BOUNDARY 10,160±105
10,230±105 Hakansson, 1970 YDry: TRUMMEN, SWED; UPPER BOUNDARY 10,230±105
10,250±120 Hakasson, 1975 YDry: NACKROSDOMMEN, SWED; UPPER BOUNDARY 10,250±120
10,250±250 Broecker et al., 1989 YDry: L.AGASSIZ SED; UPPER BOUNDARY 10,250±250 – 9,545±225
10,250±120 Hakasson, 1975 YDry: NACKROSDOMMEN, SWED; UPPER BOUNDARY 10,250±120
10,260±190 Broecker et al., 1988 YDry: N. ATL.,V23-81; UPPER BOUNDARY 10,260±190
10,360±105 Digerfeldt, 1972 YDry: TRUMMEN, SWED; UPPER BOUNDARY 10,360±105
10,720±150 Hammer et al., 1986 YDry: DYE 3 CORE; UPPER BOUNDARY 10,720±150
10,300 BP Lamb 1977 Global Climatic Boundary 10,300 BP
10,000±100 Mott et al., 1986 YDry: CAMPBELL, NS; DURING 10,000±100
10,160±160 Mott et al., 1986 YDry: GILLIS LAKE, NS; DURING 10,160±160
10,230±200 Broecker et al., 1988 YDry: N. ATL.,V23-81; PEAK DURING 10,230±200
10,400±120 Mott et al., 1986 YDry: AMAQUADEES, NS; DURING 10,400±120
10450±120 Rozanski et al. 1991 18O record, varves, YDry >1000 varves, >400 varves before 10.4 10450±120 10080±120
10,470±160 Miller & Kaufman, 1990 YDry: DURING YD 10,470±160 – 9,910±140
10,570±120 Andrews et al., 1990 YDry: SE BAFFIN SHELF; DURING 10,570±120
10600 Cwynar & Watts 1989 YDry: Artemisia zone. British Isles 10600-10070
10,600±100 Mott et al., 1986 YDry: ILLE D’ENTREE, MAG. IS.; DURING 10,600±100
10640 Gasse, et.al. 1990 YDry: Dates on lake sed. change. Algeria 10640- 9300
10300 Gasse, et.al. 1990 YDry: Mineralogical change -10300
10700 Dansgaard,White&Johnsen 1989 YDry: Annual layers of ice. Dye 3 10700
10,865±75 Andrews et al., 1990 YDry: SE BAFFIN SHELF; DURING 10,865±75 – 10,480±85
10,900±100 Mott et al., 1986 YDry: BENACADIE PT. NS; DURING 10,900±100
10900 Kelts, et.al. 1989 YDry: Bracket change in lake carbonates China 10900- 9870
10,915±230 Morner, 1969 YDry: ALGARE, SWED; LOWER AND UPPER BOUNDARY 10,915±230 – 9,915±180
11,100±90 Mott et al., 1986 YDry: ROULSTON LAKE, NB; LOWER AND UPPER BOUNDARY 11,100±90 9,930±169
11,090±110 Wolliard, 1975 YDry: GRANDE CHEMIN,FRA; LOWER AND UPPER BOUNDARY 11,090±110 9,310±85
11,090±130 Mangerud et al., 1974 YDry: BOLLING, DEN; LOWER AND UPPER BOUNDARY 11,090±130 10,400±130
11,100±90 YDry: ROULSTON LAKE, NB; LOWER AND UPPER BOUNDARY 11,100±90 9,930±169
11,110±115 Berglund, 1971 YDry: BJORKERODS, SWED; LOWER AND UPPER BOUNDARY 11,110±115 10,320±105
11,300±180 Mott et al., 1986 YDry: BASSWOOD ROAD LAKE, LOWER AND UPPER BOUNDARY 11,300±180 9,930±160
11,300±180 Walker et al. 1991 YDry: NEW BRUNSWICK, CAN, LOWER BOUNDARY 11,300±180
11500 Burrows 1989 YDry: Bracket glacial re-advance. New Zealand 11500 9500
11680 Magaritz & Goodfriend 1985 YDry: Negev region. Related to dune migration 11680 10300
12800 Jouzel, et.al. 1985 YDry: Annual layers of ice. Antarctic 12800 11600
13540 Wright 1984 YDry: Bracket glacial re-advance Peru 13540 10050
10,800 BP Lamb 1977 Global Climatic Boundary
10,850±1420 Miller & Kaufman, 1990 YDry: HUDSON STRAIT, BEFORE YD 10,850±1420 10,060±55
10,900±90 Mott et al., 1986 YDry: LANTZ, NS; LOWER BOUNDARY 10,900±90
10,940±180 Mangerud, 1970 YDry: BLOMOY, NOR; LOWER BOUNDARY 10,940±180
10,960±300 Broecker et al., 1989 YDry: LOWER BOUNDARY 10,960±300 10,050±300
11,000±90 Mott et al., 1986 YDry: BIG BROOK, NS LOWER BOUNDARY 11,000±90
11,000±170 Mott et al., 1986 YDry: PORT HOOD IS. NS; LOWER BOUNDARY 11,000±170
11000 Peteet, et.al. 1990 YDry: Upper is approx. Lower is within veg. change. NJ 11000 10000
11000 Faustova 1984 YDry: Correlation with dated glacial features USSR 11000 10000
11,060±100 Hakansson, 1970 YDry: TRUMMEN, SWED; LOWER BOUNDARY 11,060±100
11370 Khotinskiy 1984 YDry: Older date: veg. change.Younger:lake seds. USSR 11370 10260

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The original has nice color bands denoting some periods. I only post the actual listing here as far too often a link to something good ‘goes dead’ and the information is gone (as in the history of posting links to things on Wiki that supported skeptics only to find them defaced shortly afterward and turned into warmista propaganda). So now if it is climate related, I’ll tend to “preserve first, worry about permission later” in the interests of academic availability and inside my role as a professional teacher {though, like Indiana Jones: “Part Time” ;-) })

If you refer to this, be sure to cite:

OWEN K. DAVIS 1991-1993
cite O.K. Davis, unpublished

It is all his work, and my ‘contribution’ is at most just ‘being a mirror’ to it.

As noted above, I’ve not had the time to make any conclusions based on it, and don’t even know if it leans toward support or denial of sunspots as causal, or warming, or cooling, or not… but data is just data, so there it is.

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About E.M.Smith

A technical managerial sort interested in things from Stonehenge to computer science. My present "hot buttons' are the mythology of Climate Change and ancient metrology; but things change...
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8 Responses to An Interesting Resource for Weather History vs Sunspots

  1. omanuel says:

    Thanks to assistance from a friend more literary than Oliver, I am now able to summarize my entire research career as re-discovering information my research mentor – the late Professor Paul Kazuo Kuroda – probably already knew: The greatest secret of the universe was hidden from the public in 1945.

    Modern nuclear physics and ancient spiritual teachings agree:

    God (a conscious and intelligent Mind) uses neutron repulsion to make galaxies of stars, solar systems that orbit the stars, and worlds consisting of atoms, chemical compounds and living organisms with conscious awareness of their surroundings, memories and the passage of time.

    Kuroda and possibly others were aware of it – a post-WWII secret that had been symbolically displayed as the point of origin of sun rays emerging from the center of the flag of the Land of the Rising Sun (1870-1945) and also represented by the sun goddess Amaterasu Omikami in the Shinto religion [1].

    This post-WWII “secret” is consistent with basic spiritual insights of many different religions and philosophies, e.g., [2].

    1. Information lost to humanity after WWII:

    https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/10640850/Humanity_Lost_WWII.pdf

    2. Yellow Lark’s Prayer:

    https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/10640850/Yellow_Lark's_Prayer.pdf

  2. Brent Buckner says:

    Off-topic, but here’s something you might note respective of “the dieing of the thermometers”:
    http://wattsupwiththat.com/2015/01/12/another-bias-in-temperature-measurements-discovered/

  3. omanuel says:

    @Brent Buckner

    Anthony Watts is finally starting to awaken to long-standing deceitful government science, deceit-by-design to hide public knowledge of neutron repulsion by adjusting observations to fit the UN Agenda 21.

  4. hillbilly33 says:

    Hi E.M. I notice the 1991 AD Cook et al study on Tasmanian Huon Pine 940-1000 WARM PERIOD.
    The late great adopted Tasmanian, John Daly posted a great rebuttal of the flawed findings of this particular study on his “Still Waiting for Greenhouse” site.
    “Talking to the Trees”
    http://www.john-daly.com/huonpine.htm
    BTW. my Scarlet Runner beans set well on their first flowering which indicates the rather cool damp summer we’re having so far in Hobart, Tasmania this year!
    Cheers to all.

  5. Those names listed on this post are the ”precursor / foundation” of today’s evil propaganda regarding the phony ”global” warming!!! At that time they were not scrutinized – they accumulated lots of lies, on which today’s Warmist theology is based…

    Skeptics justifiably are pointing out the ”flawed data” Warmist use, BUT: those ”past researchers” were using much bigger lies… those lies are today;s ”Skeptic’s Bible” THE TRUTH: localized temperatures change every 10-15 minutes / otherwise the winds would have stopped, BUT: overall global temp is always the same. Skeptics are to blame for Warmist successes and looting!: https://globalwarmingdenier.wordpress.com/2012/08/25/skeptics-stinky-skeletons-from-their-closet/

  6. omanuel says:

    Thanks to cooperation and unselfish input from many, “the greatest secret of the universe” is being revealed as the “greatest fraudster on Earth” is exposed:

    https://stevengoddard.wordpress.com/2015/01/26/smoking-gun-of-incompetence-at-the-ipcc/

    Misinformation-by-design to fit UN Agenda 21 explains systematic, worldwide distortions in experimental measurements and observations.

  7. E.M.Smith says:

    @OManuel:

    That Steve Goddard link is interesting.

    The IPCC predicts a lot less snow, then we get a lot more, now they are saying more is as predicted by GW “science”… sheesh…

    @StephanTheDenier:

    Um, you are sounding a bit over the top there. I doubt that Lamb, for example, is guilty of “lies”. Yes, he founded the modern data collection process, but entirely as a pure scientific data gathering / preservation effort. That those who followed after him ‘lost the data’ is a travesty that can not be laid on Lamb. As one example.

    So I reject any blanket indictment of folks who gathered data as listed in the above bibliography. It is the post collection data-diddling that’s the bad patch. IMHO.

    BTW, there is no “global temperature”. Temperature is an intrinsic property, and the globe is made up of many discrete bits, all with their own temperatures. Averaging them together does not yield a temperature.
    https://chiefio.wordpress.com/2011/07/01/intrinsic-extrinsic-intensive-extensive/

    @Hillbilly33:

    Ah, the joys of Runner Beans. Wonderfully sensitive to temperatures, both for emergence / growth and for seed set. With Tomatoes to show when it is warm at night (or not, with no tomatoes…) and with Runner Beans bounding when it is too warm (impaired / no seed set so few / no pods) you can pretty much bound a ‘comfortable’ region on temps.

    San Jose, California, where I had my garden, was just marginal for tomatoes ( I had a slightly shady spot a bit too close to the bay for real heat – California grows a lot of tomatoes, but further inland and hotter places); while mid summer it was just a touch too hot for good Runner set. One of my first clues that Global Warming “Science” was complete hog wash was that my Runners were giving me a good crop while my Tomatoes were sulking and giving me nothing. In ANY warming, I’d have had mid-summer runner failures and a basket of nice tomatoes.

    I had to resort to Russian types (selected for a special cold tolerance gene) to get reliable tomatoes and had to put the Runner Beans in a semi-shaded spot to get summer production. Nothing about that has changed over about 25 years. There is a little variation in the tomato / runner ratio year to year, but no trend to it.

    I have a map of ‘belief’ in GW that I’m going to put up in a posting. Shows “belief” strongest in a few (left wing) urban core areas and least in farming zones. Farmers and gardeners know to listen to the crops…

    @Brent Buckner:

    Yes, there’s definitely a mountains and airports effect. GW not so much…

  8. R. de Haan says:

    Nice listing but I wish I had the time to have a close look the studies I haven’t read about before.
    What is clear to me is the fact that weather/climate regimes have changed frequently extreme warmth to extreme cold in the past without any human factor involved.
    Any politician that claims we have the capacity to control global temperatures within a margin of 2 degree Celsius if we submit ourselves to a global tax regime on Co2 emissions and a totally absurd renewable energy plan should be kicked out of office and submitted to the enclosed section of a mental institution, strait jacket and 2500 PPM Co2 air treatment and no heating included.

    Unfortunately the same goes for the electorate voting politicians like that into office.

Comments are closed.