Seems that Rossi has gotten a patent.
Andrea Rossi Granted E-Cat Patent by US Patent Office
Posted on August 25, 2015 by Frank Acland • 290 Comments
Yeah, almost 300 comments… it takes a while to weed through them…
This should be a very significant event in terms of replication of the “Rossi Effect”. There have been a number of efforts already by people who have studied Rossi’s statements, E-Cat test reports, and the work of other replciators like Alexander Parkhomov. Now we have some important new details that should help replicators — and I am sure new replicators will get in the game now.
One interesting excerpt from the patent that should be helpful:
“Variations in the ratio of reactants and catalyst tend to govern reaction rate, and are not critical. However, it has been found that a suitable mixture would include a starting mixture of 50% nickel, 20% lithium, and 30% LAH [lithium aluminum hydride]. Within this mixture, nickel acts as a catalyst for the reaction, and is not itself a reagent. While nickel is particularly useful because of its relative abundance, its function can also be carried out by other elements in column 10 of the periodic table, such as platinum or palladium.”
They have a link to the guy who posted before them (Mats Lewan), and he has the patent up and on line. Here’s a link to the pdf doc:
The next article in the series looks at the fuel in more depth:
Critical E-Cat Patent Discloses Full Fuel Details (Hank Mills)
Posted on August 26, 2015 by Frank Acland • 51 Comments
In the patent, the composition of Rossi’s fuel and a starting ratio is revealed. It is stated to be 50% nickel, 20% lithium, and 30% lithium aluminum hydride. All of these fuels are in the powdered form, and the exact ratios are said not to be critical. However, different ratios govern the reaction rate. For the first time ever, we have been provided with a listing of ingredients and percentages. Combined with what we already know, this means that a combination of carbonyl nickel of a few micrometers in diameter (although other forms and particle sizes of nickel may also work), lithium aluminum hydride, and lithium can come together to produce a massive amount of energy if properly stimulated with heat and a varying electromagnetic field.
Another important detail revealed in the patent is that the nickel powder must be pre-heated to convert trapped water into supercritical steam, explode, and increase the porosity of the nickel. The concept of enhancing the porosity of the nickel is mentioned multiple times. Perhaps the enhanced surface area and tubercules of carbonyl nickel provide a good starting powder that is improved by pre-heating. It should also be noted that the most successful replicator of this technology, Alexander Parkhomov, who has successfully produced excess heat in at least a dozen different tests, recently revealed to the Martin Fleischman Memorial Project that he pre-heats his nickel to 200C to remove any water content. From my knowledge, very few replicators have been “cooking” their nickel in this fashion – or at all. Maybe this could be a step that will ensure more successful replications.
The author then goes on to some speculation about the hows and whys:
The fuel ingredients and ratio in the patent fascinates me. My personal hypothesis (which could be wrong) is that by adding lithium (pure) aluminum is removed from the reactor. I think that this may enhance the reaction rate, because the aluminum participates in few nuclear reactions. Lithium has multiple mechanisms by which the rate it reacts with protons to undergo fusion can be increased. One of these mechanisms is how Unified Gravity LLC has discovered that there is a low energy window of between 200ev and 5000ev in which protons can impact and undergo fusion reactions with lithium. This very low level of energy is up to a thousand times lower than what is required according to mainstream physics. The second of these mechanisms is Hidetsugu Ikegami’s discovery that protons ejected at liquid lithium near the point of phase change undergo a dramatic rate enhancement. As far as I know, there is no such rate enhancement for aluminum.
My guess is that aluminum acts to limit the rate of nuclear reactions and increase the temperature at which nuclear reactions begin. By being in the fuel mix, the aluminum may take up valuable space that could be filled with lithium atoms. I imagine the lithium atoms being like small balloons in a pile and aluminum atoms being like large balloons in that same pile. When protons are “fired” into the pile of balloons, more of the protons hit aluminum than lithium. And since energy is only released when lithium atoms are hit, the total output is reduced. If you remove some or all of the aluminum, then more of the protons will hit lithium atoms. This increases the energy output.
So the hypothesis here is that it is really a Lithium reactor with a Nickle catalyst, specially heat / expansion treated, and with an Aluminum “moderator” of sorts. Then there is some reasoning behind the speculation:
The follow is my hypothetical conjecture.
– The earliest low temperature E-Cats probably utilized nickel and pure lithium or perhaps an addition of potassium.
– The earliest hot cats that were injected with hydrogen gas may have only used a combination of nickel and lithium. It has been reported that even only using direct current heating they repeatedly “melted down.”
– To increase the operating temperature of hot cats, the model of hot cat covered in this patent may have utilized a mix of both lithium aluminum hydride (to provide hydrogen) and pure lithium. The presence of aluminum may have increased the operating temperature and stabilized the reactions.
– To allow for ultra high temperatures, the Lugano style E-Cat may have only used lithium aluminum hydride. This may have increased the temperature at which excess heat began being produced to around 700C.
– Ultra high temperatures are absolutely possible with pure lithium. However, I think the rate of runaway is probably much higher at high temperatures.
So one wonders just how much ‘contamination’ in the water used in various Pd / Pt / Ni reactors might have mattered. IFF using non-DI water gives the actual fuel to the reaction and being too careful about purity caused them to not work…
e-Catworld has a countdown clock on the bottom of their page saying it is 4 months 24 days to ‘conclusion’ of the 1 MW plant. So not too much longer to wait… I guess