Rossi ECAT Patent

Seems that Rossi has gotten a patent.

http://www.e-catworld.com/2015/08/25/andrea-rossi-granted-e-cat-patent-by-us-patent-office/

Andrea Rossi Granted E-Cat Patent by US Patent Office
Posted on August 25, 2015 by Frank Acland • 290 Comments

Yeah, almost 300 comments… it takes a while to weed through them…

This should be a very significant event in terms of replication of the “Rossi Effect”. There have been a number of efforts already by people who have studied Rossi’s statements, E-Cat test reports, and the work of other replciators like Alexander Parkhomov. Now we have some important new details that should help replicators — and I am sure new replicators will get in the game now.

One interesting excerpt from the patent that should be helpful:

“Variations in the ratio of reactants and catalyst tend to govern reaction rate, and are not critical. However, it has been found that a suitable mixture would include a starting mixture of 50% nickel, 20% lithium, and 30% LAH [lithium aluminum hydride]. Within this mixture, nickel acts as a catalyst for the reaction, and is not itself a reagent. While nickel is particularly useful because of its relative abundance, its function can also be carried out by other elements in column 10 of the periodic table, such as platinum or palladium.”

They have a link to the guy who posted before them (Mats Lewan), and he has the patent up and on line. Here’s a link to the pdf doc:

https://animpossibleinvention.files.wordpress.com/2015/08/us9115913b1.pdf

The next article in the series looks at the fuel in more depth:

http://www.e-catworld.com/2015/08/26/critical-e-cat-patent-discloses-full-fuel-details-hank-mills/

Critical E-Cat Patent Discloses Full Fuel Details (Hank Mills)
Posted on August 26, 2015 by Frank Acland • 51 Comments
[…]
In the patent, the composition of Rossi’s fuel and a starting ratio is revealed. It is stated to be 50% nickel, 20% lithium, and 30% lithium aluminum hydride. All of these fuels are in the powdered form, and the exact ratios are said not to be critical. However, different ratios govern the reaction rate. For the first time ever, we have been provided with a listing of ingredients and percentages. Combined with what we already know, this means that a combination of carbonyl nickel of a few micrometers in diameter (although other forms and particle sizes of nickel may also work), lithium aluminum hydride, and lithium can come together to produce a massive amount of energy if properly stimulated with heat and a varying electromagnetic field.

Another important detail revealed in the patent is that the nickel powder must be pre-heated to convert trapped water into supercritical steam, explode, and increase the porosity of the nickel. The concept of enhancing the porosity of the nickel is mentioned multiple times. Perhaps the enhanced surface area and tubercules of carbonyl nickel provide a good starting powder that is improved by pre-heating. It should also be noted that the most successful replicator of this technology, Alexander Parkhomov, who has successfully produced excess heat in at least a dozen different tests, recently revealed to the Martin Fleischman Memorial Project that he pre-heats his nickel to 200C to remove any water content. From my knowledge, very few replicators have been “cooking” their nickel in this fashion – or at all. Maybe this could be a step that will ensure more successful replications.

The author then goes on to some speculation about the hows and whys:

[…]
The fuel ingredients and ratio in the patent fascinates me. My personal hypothesis (which could be wrong) is that by adding lithium (pure) aluminum is removed from the reactor. I think that this may enhance the reaction rate, because the aluminum participates in few nuclear reactions. Lithium has multiple mechanisms by which the rate it reacts with protons to undergo fusion can be increased. One of these mechanisms is how Unified Gravity LLC has discovered that there is a low energy window of between 200ev and 5000ev in which protons can impact and undergo fusion reactions with lithium. This very low level of energy is up to a thousand times lower than what is required according to mainstream physics. The second of these mechanisms is Hidetsugu Ikegami’s discovery that protons ejected at liquid lithium near the point of phase change undergo a dramatic rate enhancement. As far as I know, there is no such rate enhancement for aluminum.

My guess is that aluminum acts to limit the rate of nuclear reactions and increase the temperature at which nuclear reactions begin. By being in the fuel mix, the aluminum may take up valuable space that could be filled with lithium atoms. I imagine the lithium atoms being like small balloons in a pile and aluminum atoms being like large balloons in that same pile. When protons are “fired” into the pile of balloons, more of the protons hit aluminum than lithium. And since energy is only released when lithium atoms are hit, the total output is reduced. If you remove some or all of the aluminum, then more of the protons will hit lithium atoms. This increases the energy output.

So the hypothesis here is that it is really a Lithium reactor with a Nickle catalyst, specially heat / expansion treated, and with an Aluminum “moderator” of sorts. Then there is some reasoning behind the speculation:

The follow is my hypothetical conjecture.

– The earliest low temperature E-Cats probably utilized nickel and pure lithium or perhaps an addition of potassium.

– The earliest hot cats that were injected with hydrogen gas may have only used a combination of nickel and lithium. It has been reported that even only using direct current heating they repeatedly “melted down.”

– To increase the operating temperature of hot cats, the model of hot cat covered in this patent may have utilized a mix of both lithium aluminum hydride (to provide hydrogen) and pure lithium. The presence of aluminum may have increased the operating temperature and stabilized the reactions.

– To allow for ultra high temperatures, the Lugano style E-Cat may have only used lithium aluminum hydride. This may have increased the temperature at which excess heat began being produced to around 700C.

– Ultra high temperatures are absolutely possible with pure lithium. However, I think the rate of runaway is probably much higher at high temperatures.

So one wonders just how much ‘contamination’ in the water used in various Pd / Pt / Ni reactors might have mattered. IFF using non-DI water gives the actual fuel to the reaction and being too careful about purity caused them to not work…

e-Catworld has a countdown clock on the bottom of their page saying it is 4 months 24 days to ‘conclusion’ of the 1 MW plant. So not too much longer to wait… I guess

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About E.M.Smith

A technical managerial sort interested in things from Stonehenge to computer science. My present "hot buttons' are the mythology of Climate Change and ancient metrology; but things change...
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9 Responses to Rossi ECAT Patent

  1. E.M.Smith says:

    I’m going to paste in some kinks here that are currently tying up real estate in my Tablet… I have something near 100 tabs open in FireFox on it (just because I can… The default browser maxes out at about 10, so I wanted more, then wanted to find out “where’s that limit?”… at about 100 it starts getting a little doggy… it has also shown a tendency to crash the browser at high open active tabs- though on relaunch they are all still there, just inactive, but click through enough of them I think it has a memory fault and you are relaunching the browser…)

    So I’m going through and both ‘catching up’ on ideas for postings ‘left open’ on it, and putting ‘interesting links’ in more suitable places as I prune back to a couple of dozen active…

    Nice set of links to various LENR related articles, including a section in French:

    http://www.lenrnews.eu/lenr-summary-for-policy-makers/

    “LENR-CANR.org

    A library of papers about cold fusion”

    http://lenr-canr.org/

    I like this one for all the quotes in it (that apply to AGW Skeptics as well):

    http://egooutpeters.blogspot.com/2014/07/about-slow-progress-and-crazy.html

    The top level: http://egooutpeters.blogspot.com/ has some interesting bits on it today too.

    From the more-humor-than-use department, this video claims to be making gold from beer bottle glass:

    http://www.ecoinventions.ca/blue-eagle-gold-making-technology/

    Unclear is why someone who can make gold from glass is working in an old barn with a wood pile instead of having a small mansion and drinking a lot of beer…

    Semi-quasi-tangential, Toyota using LENR tech, but for non-LENR making of special ‘nanoparticles’

    W.P. swallows this link whole if just pasted in… http://plus.google.com/107190105791959392745/posts/QcHAszeGGFZ

    For anyone wondering… I’ve got that in an href link, and then pasted at the end of the sentence, and it worked, but just pasted alone, it didn’t ‘take’… WP bug? I’m leaving the three forms for future exploration…

    ‘https://plus.google.com/107190105791959392745/posts/QcHAszeGGFZ’

    Since I don’t know how ‘persistent’ things are on google+, I’m quoting the whole things here:

    Gregory Goble
    – Yesterday 1:03 AM

    Toyota Metallic Hydride Nanoparticle Patents

    The importance of metallic hydride nanoparticles to LENR energy got me looking for recent patents. These from Toyota caught my attention. I am looking into this further and will put together an in depth article. In the meantime have a peek and see what you think.

    LiALH4, LiBH4, and Li(CH3CH2)3BH nanoparticle production, found here by Toyota, is of interest.

    Creating metallic hydride nanoparticles is not cheap or easy. Clearly, if one develops economic mass production methods, creating fuel for LENR reactors can be a breadwinner.

    History of Toyota and Cold Fusion

    INVESTING IN LENR/COLD FUSION
    MARCH 2, 2014 by SIMON TEMPLAR at Cold Fusion Now
    http://coldfusionnow.org/investing-in-lenr-cold-fusion/

    Quote

    “Toyota (NYSE:TM) has had its eye on LENR from day 1. Technova, a Toyota affiliated lab, actually hired Fleischmann and Pons and essentially gave them a new life in France away from the media circus in the US. They were hired for a secret research program in LENR, continuing their work in private. While they may have not created a commercially relevant reactor system, they did spark the interest of Toyota, whose work in LENR continues to this day. Recently Toyota replicated a key experiment of Mitsubishi, showing the massive opportunities in LENR energy as well as LENR transmutation. Toyota is a huge company and would be best for a long term investment.” – end quote

    Also of interest, here is the production of the nanoparticle hydrides, which (quote the patent) “can in some variations include a corresponding deuteride or tritide”, of magnesium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, silver, gold, zinc, cadmium, boron, indium, antimony, or bismuth.

    The Patents

    “Stable Complexes of Zero-valent Metallic Element and Hydride as Novel Reagents” US 20150098885 A1
    https://www.google.com/patents/US20150098885A1

    Publication date: Apr 9, 2015
    Filing date: May 5, 2014
    Priority date: Oct 4, 2013
    Inventors: Michael P. Rowe
    Original Assignee: Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc.

    ABSTRACT

    A composition and its method of production are provided. The composition includes at least one zero-valent metallic element atom in complex with at least one hydride molecule. The method of production includes ball-milling an elemental metal in a high-surface area form, with a hydride. The composition can be useful as a reagent for the synthesis of zero-valent metallic elemental nanoparticles.

    Claims

    20. The method of claim 18 wherein the zero-valent metallic element is magnesium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, silver, gold, zinc, cadmium, boron, indium, antimony, or bismuth.

    BACKGROUND

    Hydrides, compounds in which metals or metalloids are bound directly to hydrogen, are relatively energetic molecules with a large variety of known and developing applications in chemistry and energy technology. Such applications include uses as reducing agents, hydrogenation catalysts, desiccants, potent bases, components in rechargeable batteries, and potentially as solid hydrogen storage vehicles in fuel cell technology.

    Metal nanoparticles, particles of elemental metal in pure or alloyed form with a dimension less than 100 nm, have unique physical, chemical, electrical, magnetic, optical, and other properties in comparison to their corresponding bulk metals. As such they are in use or under development in fields such as chemistry, medicine, energy, and advanced electronics, among others.

    Another embodiment of this patent has been granted.

    “Stable complexes of zero-valent metal and hydride as novel reagents” US 8980219 B1
    https://www.google.com/patents/US8980219B1
    Publication type: Grant
    Publication date: Mar 17, 2015
    Filing date: Oct 4, 2013
    Priority date: Oct 4, 2013
    Inventors: Michael Paul Rowe, Rana Mohtadi, Daniel Jeffrey Herrera
    Original Assignee: Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION

    Compositions of zero-valent metals in complex with hydrides and methods of synthesizing the compositions are described. A zero-valent metal can alternatively be described as a metal which is in oxidation state zero or as an elemental metal.

    As used here, a “metal” can refer to an alkaline earth metal, an alkali metal, a transition metal, or a post-transition metal. The phrase “transition metal” can refer to any D-block metal of Groups 3 through 12. The phrase “post-transition metal” can refer to Group 13 through 16 metals.

    As used here, a “hydride” can be a binary metal hydride (e.g. NaH, or MgH2), a binary metalloid hydride (e.g. BH3), a complex metal hydride (e.g. LiALH4), or a complex metalloid hydride (e.g. LiBH4 or Li(CH3CH2)3BH). In some examples the hydride will be LiBH4. The term “metalloid” can refer to any of boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, or polonium. The term hydride as described above can in some variations include a corresponding deuteride or tritide.

    Pretty broad patent…

  2. Sandy McClintock says:

    I read through the Rossi eCat patent and was surprised that it described HOW to build the machine but not HOW it worked. Perhaps that’s normal?

  3. E.M.Smith says:

    @Sandy:

    Patents typically say “do this it works” and at most make vague claims about all the possible ways it might function. Things like “may use any light metal or alloy” so that folks can’t make a minor change of material to bypass the patent. The more vague and broad the better (for the patent holder).

  4. R. Shearer says:

    Having several U.S. and international patents, I know a little about the basics of patent law, intellectual property and technology. The Rossi U.S. 9,115,913 patents appears to be for a heat-exchanger. It’s hard to understand how this is patentable, but unless someone is willing to contest it, it will stand.

    In any case, the original ecat patent filing from Rossi, as far as I can tell, is the international patent application: WO2008IT00532 from 2008. This is still pending as WO2009125444 and pending as U.S. US2011005506 (A1). I find it interesting that the patent application refers to, [0060] “A practical embodiment of the inventive apparatus, installed on Oct. 16, 2007, is at present perfectly operating 24 hours per day, and provides an amount of heat sufficient to heat the factory of the Company EON of via Carlo Ragazzi 18, at Bondeno (Province of Ferrara).” https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/pdfs/US20110005506.pdf

    That would mean that an embodiment was operating from Oct. 16, 2007 to at least the date of the original application well into 2008. Based on all of the “tests” and “trials” that can barely function for days or even hours, this does not seem possible.

  5. gallopingcamel says:

    Rossi has an “Office” at 7900 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33434.

    I dropped by in January 2015 only to discover it was an attorney’s office. The receptionist said Rossi would probably be in tomorrow. I figured this was the “tomorrow that never comes”.

    The receptionist gave me a card so in a few months I will call with the idea of making an appointment to meet the great man (Rossi) in January 2016. Don’t hold your breath Chiefio (or anyone else for that matter).

  6. John Andrews says:

    Interesting that the Triga reactor fuel uses uranium zirconium hydride (http://www.ga.com/triga-fuels) because it has a prompt negative temperature reactivity. This was Dr. Frederick DeHoffman’s patent that lead the the development of General Atomic (now General Atomics) in San Diego. I suspect that the metal hydride is doing the same thing to keep the Rossi device from melting.

  7. E.M.Smith says:

    @John:

    Interesting point.. I knew about the reactivity but didn’t connect the dots… Well done.

    Has me wondering if AlH does someting similar. Maybe H provide protons to the reacton via a neutron conversion, that drifts into the Li on thin films inside Ni micro pits, with AlH temperature dependent… Hmmmmm.

  8. p.g.sharrow says:

    It appears to me that Rossi have been “Captured” by deep pockets. We will not see commercial use of the E-cat.
    I have seen this happen several times before. When a new paradigm shows itself a big player in that field shows up with cash and promise that they will expand and promote, just sign here. They will take care of all the front office stuff while the developer completes the needed R&D for product commercialization. When the startup money is exhausted the deep pockets company says “sorry, we have other needs to fund and are shuttering things for now. OH yes, That nondisclosure agreement you signed says everything that you have created or will create in the future belongs to the business that we control and are side lining for now. Go home and shut-up or we will sue”
    I have even seen the Big Pockets move in their own people to re-engineer the product so it won’t work and use that to discredit the earlier work and closure of the effort.
    In this case there seem to be a great deal of independent work all over the world. Damn hard to stuff this genii back into the bottle. Attempts to use Intellectual Property protection laws to lock this up may fail due to “Official” actions. But in my opinion the Rossi E-cat is done…pg

  9. Henry Galt says:

    One solution – a tad convoluted (like myself) but:

    I have a list of sites I cannot live without – pipe delimited as is FF’s wont.

    In settings you may choose ‘use current’ and it loads them, again pipe delimited.

    You used to be able to swing back-and-forth between your home-page and your current pages using a cancel button but progress has removed this ability ;)

    When the tab count reaches 100+(more often as I get older) I (more often as I get older) cut the entire ‘current’ list to a text file for riffling at my leisure and paste my favorite sites in the, now vacant field speeding up the old nag no end.

    Your millage may vairy ;)

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