This is an interesting patent for a compact log periodic antenna. The longer elements get a wire box on the end to shorten them…
Foreshortened dipole antenna with triangular radiating elements and tapered coaxial feedline
US 4907011 A
A foreshortened log-periodic antenna which includes variously configured dipole elements and a tapered feedline is disclosed. The dipole elements are arranged in four regions. A first region, located nearest to a feed end of the antenna, includes solid triangular dipoles having constant base-to-height ratios. A second region, adjacent to the first region, includes solid triangular dipoles having decreasing base-to-height ratios. A third region, located adjacent to the second region, includes a single linear dipole. A fourth region, located adjacent to the third region and nearest to a low frequency end of the antenna, includes foreshortened dipoles. The feedline may be implemented either in coaxial or microstrip form so that a lower characteristic impedance is pressed at the feed end of the antenna than at the low frequency end of the antenna. Specifically, for a coaxial feedline having individual conductors separated by a distance “d” at the feed end of the antenna, the individual conductors taper relative to each other so that they are separated by a distance of 2d-5d at the low frequency end of the antenna.
Looks like by using fat dipoles at each end, the whole thing can be smaller.