Confirmation of Cold Grand Solar Minimum

Somehow I missed this paper:

Nature Geoscience | Letter
Regional atmospheric circulation shifts induced by a grand solar minimum

Celia Martin-Puertas,
Katja Matthes,
Achim Brauer,
Raimund Muscheler,
Felicitas Hansen,
Christof Petrick,
Ala Aldahan,
Göran Possnert
& Bas van Geel

Nature Geoscience

Received 24 January 2012
Accepted 02 April 2012
Published online 06 May 2012

Large changes in solar ultraviolet radiation can indirectly affect climate 1 by inducing atmospheric changes. Specifically, it has been suggested that centennial-scale climate variability during the Holocene epoch was controlled by the Sun
2, 3. However, the amplitude of solar forcing is small when compared with the climatic effects and, without reliable data sets, it is unclear which feedback mechanisms could have amplified the forcing. Here we analyse annually laminated sediments of Lake Meerfelder Maar, Germany, to derive variations in wind strength and the rate of 10Be accumulation, a proxy for solar activity, from 3,300 to 2,000 years before present. We find a sharp increase in windiness and cosmogenic 10Be deposition 2,759  ±  39 varve years before present and a reduction in both entities 199  ±  9 annual layers later. We infer that the atmospheric circulation reacted abruptly and in phase with the solar minimum. A shift in atmospheric circulation in response to changes in solar activity is broadly consistent with atmospheric circulation patterns in long-term climate model simulations, and in reanalysis data that assimilate observations from recent solar minima into a climate model. We conclude that changes in atmospheric circulation amplified the solar signal and caused abrupt climate change about 2,800 years ago, coincident with a grand solar minimum.

Unfortunately, they want $32 to read the whole article. So I’ve quoted the entire “blurb” they give out for free here.

Doing a quick check on the title, I found several other blogs that had already posted about it. Yet I’d not seen it. So on the off chance that anyone here missed it, I’ve put it here.

I got there via a search on grand solar minimum and aurora, that in early results looked like it was saying the aurora reduced (but then I got side tracked into this article.) The place where I ran into it was:

that has a nice write up and correlates it with planetary positions. “Homeric Minimum” has an nice ring to it… That article has a very interesting graph of Be10 vs C14 vs Solar Angular Momentum. So hit the link and take a look… (It would have been nice if they had extended that graph to the present, but I suspect the Be10 and C14 are not available. After nuclear testing began C14 became dodgy anyway…) This article:

has the present AM graph in it, which does not have the second “step” in 2040, so there’s some hope this Grand Minimum will be a Baby Grand ;-) I’m needing to take some time to look over a longer chart series and see what prior weather history was like when we had a ‘step and shallow slope’ instead of the old Solar Two Step.

Of note is that this research has identified both solar output and climate data from a single core for the first time. With both datasets coming from a single source the reliability of the data is obviously enhanced. The team believe one strong mechanism causing the solar/climate link is UV light which fluctuates at much higher levels over the solar cycle compared with TSI output (heat) that is often promoted by IPCC friendly scientists that only varies 0.1% (there is some doubt over this figure).

There is also a link to WUWT:

Which just leaves me wondering what I was doing in May that I missed it all…

UPDATE: Here’s the press release from the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres.

Climatic effects of a solar minimum

A grand solar minimum and the climate response recorded for the first time in the same climate archive highlights the need for a more differentiated approach to solar radiation

An abrupt cooling in Europe together with an increase in humidity and particularly in windiness coincided with a sustained reduction in solar activity 2800 years ago. Scientists from the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ in collaboration with Swedish and Dutch colleagues provide evidence for a direct solar-climate linkage on centennial timescales. Using the most modern methodological approach, they analysed sediments from Lake Meerfelder Maar, a maar lake in the Eifel/Germany, to determine annual variations in climate proxies and solar activity.

The study published online this week in Nature Geosience (06/05/2012) reports the climatic change that occurred at the beginning of the pre-Roman Iron Age and demonstrates that especially the so-called Grand Minima of solar activity can affect climate conditions in western Europe through changes in regional atmospheric circulation pattern. Around 2800 years ago, one of these Grand Solar Minima, the Homeric Minimum, caused a distinct climatic change in less than a decade in Western Europe.

The exceptional seasonally laminated sediments from the studied maar lake allow a precise dating even of short-term climate changes. The results show for a 200 year long period strongly increased springtime winds during a period of cool and wet climate in Europe. In combination with model studies they suggest a mechanism that can explain the relation between a weak sun and climate change. “The change and strengthening of the tropospheric wind systems likely is related to stratospheric processes which in turn are affected by the ultraviolet radiation” explains Achim Brauer (GFZ), the initiator of the study. “This complex chain of processes thus acts as a positive feedback mechanism that could explain why assumingly too small variations in solar activity have caused regional climate changes.”

Some Historical Perspective

So “a bit late to the party” but still, nice to have documented. We’ve also seen increasing “wet” along with more wind during this minimum, so things are proceeding according to expectations. While the Larger Grand Minimums with a ‘2 Step” lasted nearly 200 years, this one is likely to be much shorter (and one hopes less deep). I’m sticking with Habibulo and his prediction that it’s at the bottom in 2040 and pretty much exiting in 2060. That would make it less than 50 years. I would speculate that looking at weather changes 30 to 40 years into the larger ones would be ‘about right’. Probably not too bad then.

Still, wet, windy and cold are not my favorite things… But at least I’m not in Europe, so I can hope that doesn’t apply to me. Unfortunately, California often goes for “slightly cool and hard drought”… So I might be less windy and wet, but very thirsty.

Perhaps a bit more like the Dalton Minimum as described in this very nice write up by Joe D’Aleo (from 2009):

If your idea of Christmas is mince pies, sleigh- bells in the snow, and a family feast round a roaring fire, then you’re dreaming of a Dickensian Christmas. For all the elements of what we now think of a traditional Old English Yuletide were largely the invention of that greatest of English writers, Charles Dickens, in his 1847 masterpiece A Christmas Carol. Well the Climate is now moving into a new regime that may bring us back to the climate of the Dickens era, the so called Dalton Minimum (1790-1830). Last winter, London had its first October snow in 70 years and more snow in December, January and February. Bitter cold weather accompanied the snow for weeks at a time.

Has nice pictures in it too ;-)

Time to dig out the weather atlas and see what the weather was like in those years.

puts the Homeric Minimum as being from 950 BC to 800 BC.
It puts the Spörer Minimum as being from 1450 to 1550 AD.

The Iron Age Cold Epoch (also referred to as Iron Age climate pessimum or Iron Age neoglaciation) was a period of unusually cold climate in the North Atlantic region, lasting from about 900 BC to about 300 BC, with an especially cold wave in 450 BC during the expansion of ancient Greece. It was followed by the Roman Warm Period (250 BC – 400 AD).

Looks like the Warmista Langoliers have been busy pruning the Iron Age Cold Period. Now it only happened in Europe and limited to the North Atlantic part of even that area. Gee…

An interesting tidbit was picked up here:

Mesopotamia is utterly devastated by a long drought which leads to an almost complete breakdown of civil authority.

Earth Cooling! 850
An abrupt cooling of earth-climate begins.

So we’ve got drought in Syria / Iraq. Wonder how the Muslims will handle that…

On the later dates, near 1450, we have:

• March 15: Earthquake located in Amer, Catalonia, Spain, with intensity estimated between 8 and 9 on the Richter scale, destroys the town.
• May 15: Earthquake epicenter located in Olot, Catalonia, Spain, with intensity estimated at 9.
• December 5: Earthquake strikes Naples, Italy, killing about 35,000.
• September 20: An earthquake and tsunami hit the port in Wakayama, Japan. Between 30-40 thousand deaths are estimated. The building around great Buddha of Kamakura (7m above sea-level) is swept away by the tsunami.
• England experiences foul weather, a poor harvest, and high mortality from ‘sweating sickness’ (profuse sweat, foul smell, thirst, delirium, death within a few hours of onset).
• An earthquake destroys San Salvador, capital of El Salvador, Central America.
• February 26: Over 200,000 people are killed in an earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal.

Again not looking so good…

How about looking at what happened in China?

Historians divide the Zhou era into Western Zhou from late 10th century BC to late 9th century up until 771 BC and Eastern Zhou from 770 up to 221 BC . The beginning year of Western Zhou has been disputed – 1122 BC, 1027 BC and other years within the hundred years from late 12th century BC to late 11th century BC have been proposed. Chinese historians take 841 BC as the first year of consecutive annual dating of the history of China, based on the Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian. From the beginning of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty to the unification by Qin , China was marked by disunity and continuous conflicts. Historically, this is recorded as two periods: the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period.

So it starts off with building of empire. The “Western Zhou”. Then toward the middle, things get muddled. Toward the end we have an early “spring and autumn” period then it breaks down into the “warring states period”… Oh Dear!

The Spring and Autumn Period occurred from about 770-476 B.C. During this period, power became decentralized. This period was filled with battles and annexation of some 170 smaller states. The slow crumbling of nobility resulted in widespread literacy; increasing literacy encouraged freedom of thought and technological advancement.

This time period of the Warring States is considered the classical age, it was a time of great philosophers.

Looks to me like China was a growing empire in the time before 900 BC, then breaks down into warring factions during the “downturn” in solar conditions. Maybe not just a Europe cold period after all…

See, the interesting thing about these ‘history bits’ is that the Data Diddlers can’t erase them all. They can neuter the wiki. They can cook the temperature series. But you just can’t go back and erase all the “facts in the ground” and ALL the historical records globally. Sorry…

Dateline May 29, 1453
1453 The ‘fall’ of Constantinople preceded by heavenly wonders

Did a Pacific volcano change Western history?

On a Tuesday, Constantinople (now Istanbul) fell to the Turks, or, so it is said in the Muslim world, Constantinople was liberated, after a siege, ending the Byzantine Empire.
During the preceding weeks, the city had suffered many heavy rains and hailstorms.
Being medieval men, the leaders believed that the Christian city would not fall to the siege of the Ottoman armies under Sultan Mehmed II Fatih unless there was a mysterious sign in the moon. Unfortunately for them, the moon went into a long and dark eclipse on May 22, displaying a thin crescent – the image of the Turkish standard flying over Mehmed’s camp.

On the 26th, an unseasonable, thick fog fell upon Constantinople.
By nightfall, the fog lifted and the Christians were appalled by what they saw: the buildings of the city glowed in ominous shades of red. Even the enormous copper dome of the imposing cathedral, the Hagia Sophia (which has been a mosque ever since) appeared to be engulfed in flames, but it never burned. Phrantzes, a friend of the emperor, wrote that the light remained over the city for an entire night.

Loads of links in that article.

Then there are the broad sweep things. Like the fact that the Iron Age takes a ‘hit’ right in the middle:

IRON AGE (1200 – 550 B.C.E.)


The Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I (1200-1000) illustrates both continuity and discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the thirteenth and twelfth century
throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country, Transjordan and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, that shows strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves later into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more significantly from that of the late second millennium.

Iron II (1000-550) witnessed the rise of the states of Judah and Israel in the tenth-ninth century. These small principalities exercise considerable control over their particular regions due in part to the decline of the great powers, Assyria and Egypt, from about 1200 to 900.
Beginning in the eighth century and certainly in the seventh century, Assyria reestablishes its authority over the eastern Mediterranean area and exercises almost complete control. The northern state of Israel is obliterated in 722/721 by King Sargon and its inhabitants taken into exile. Judah, left alone, gradually accommodates to Assyrian control, but towards the end of the seventh century it does revolt as the Assyrian empire disintegrated. Judah’s freedom was short-lived, however, and eventually snuffed out by the Chaldean kings who conquered Jerusalem and took some of the ruling class into exile to Babylon. During the period of exile in Babylon, the area, particularly from Jerusalem south, shows a mark decline. Other areas just north of Jerusalem are almost unaffected by the catastrophe that befell Judah.

So things are progressing nicely. New High Tech comes along as Iron to replace bronze. Lots of cultural continuity. Then a break happens. Just about 950 BC. The regional “great power” empires have issues (being dependent on trade and stability to run an empire can be a real bitch when things go cold and unstable with hungry populations). The minor states start to break away and get uppity. Then a few hundred years later the Great Powers start to come back, crushing Israel in the process. One really does hope that “This time is different!”…

The Point?

The point? History is recorded all over the place now. Finding an interesting match to a point in time lets us see what happened then, and ‘have clue’ about what is likely now.

So was it a volcano? Or do we get more volcanoes when we have the ‘gravity jerk’ of orbits of a Grand Solar Minimum? Does it really matter? We can hope that this time will be different. Fewer and less strong volcanoes. Perhaps a shorter cycle on the cold and wet weather in Europe.

The simple fact is that during those times when the Solar Angular momentum is ‘choppy’ we have cold periods, wet and rain in Europe, droughts down toward Iraq / Syria, and empires fall ( in China and in Europe).

For some reason, I have the silly idea this time will be more like the last times, than different…

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About E.M.Smith

A technical managerial sort interested in things from Stonehenge to computer science. My present "hot buttons' are the mythology of Climate Change and ancient metrology; but things change...
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18 Responses to Confirmation of Cold Grand Solar Minimum

  1. E.M.Smith says:

    has an interesting bit of data down in the comments (the article is interesting too!):

    William Shipley says:
    May 9, 2012 at 12:14 pm

    When my wife linked to this on her Facebook site, someone said that there were no other ice cores that confirmed the number and gave a link to CO2 science. Knowing that the Vostok data is readily available I took a look at and found an interesting pattern (if I am reading it right):

    79 2501 -436.2 0.30
    80 2542 -439.6 -0.27
    81 2585 -446.2 -1.36
    82 2628 -439 -0.17
    83 2670 -438.1 -0.02
    84 2713 -445.2 -1.19
    85 2760 -449.9 -1.97
    86 2805 -441.7 -0.61
    87 2847 -434.5 0.58

    If I’m reading this correctly this shows a marked drop in temperature with a minimum at 2760 years ago (which is the lowest point until 11,749 when it was -2.20 warming up from much lower. Someone who knows what they are doing should take a closer look at this.

    So that right hand column shows a drop of -1.19 ( I presume C ) then to -1.97, then it starts back up. All told about 100 years. Bummer…

  2. Pascvaks says:

    EM – put this up a couple minutes ago at it appears to fit better here (and this is the author’s copy/link, so it’s free;-) –
    “A shared frequency set between the historical mid-latitude aurora records
    and the global surface temperature”
    by Nicola Scafetta

    Click to access ATP3507.pdf

    Accepted 16 October 2011
    Available online 29 October 2011
    Aurora cycles
    Planetary motion
    Solar variability

    Abstract –
    “Herein we show that the historical records of mid-latitude auroras from 1700 to 1966 present oscillations with periods of about 9, 10–11, 20–21, 30 and 60 years. The same frequencies are found in proxy and instrumental global surface temperature records since 1650 and 1850, respectively, and in several planetary and solar records. We argue that the aurora records reveal a physical link between climate change and astronomical oscillations. Likely in addition to a Soli-Lunar tidal effect, there exists a planetary modulation of the heliosphere, of the cosmic ray flux reaching the Earth and/or of the electric properties of the ionosphere. The latter, in turn, has the potentiality of modulating the global cloud cover that ultimately drives the climate oscillations through albedo oscillations. In particular, a quasi-60-year large cycle is quite evident since 1650 in all climate and astronomical records herein studied, which also include a historical record of meteorite fall in China from 619 to 1943. These findings support the thesis that climate oscillations have an astronomical origin. We show that a harmonic constituent model based on the major astronomical frequencies revealed in the aurora records and deduced from the natural gravitational oscillations of the solar system is able to forecast with a reasonable accuracy the decadal and multidecadal temperature oscillations from 1950 to 2010 using the temperature data before 1950, and vice versa. The existence of a natural 60-year cyclical modulation of the global surface temperature induced by astronomical mechanisms, by alone, would imply that at least 60–70% of the warming observed since 1970 has been naturally induced. Moreover, the climate may stay approximately stable during the next decades because the 60-year cycle has entered in its cooling phase.”

  3. w.w.wygart says:

    ‘sweating sickness’ a fungal toxicity? Ergotism?

  4. adolfogiurfa says:

    We will be lost in details, unable to understand the many tongues of a babylonian confusion until we do not rediscover the basic laws governing the universe, written and depicted everywhere before our blind eyes. The Electric Universe approach is the closest approximation in many hundred of years to these simple truths.

  5. J Martin says:

    E.M.Smith said “We’re having “lower lows” and “lower highs” already. When this cycle tops and falls, we go further into cold than during the L.I.A”

    If we see temperatures dip below those of the LIA, in the coming 20+ years then I reckon that may be a reasonable indicator that we are stepping down from our current interglacial towards the next full glacial.

    This last graph on the linked page below from Tallbloke’s Blog suggests that that might be the case, if only they had extended it another two hundred years. Note that the two largest curves didn’t fully coincide during the Maunder Minimum, but it looks as if they will come much closer to doing so during the forthcoming minimum, thus producing temperatures lower than those reached in the Maunder.

  6. J Martin says:

    Also from the same thread on WUWT, dscott said ” However, the geologic record is clear without exception, EVERY interglacial ends at the down swing of the obliquity cycle when it passes 23.5 degrees. NO EXCEPTIONS!!!!! The only relevant question is at what degree below 23.5 does the interglacial actually officially end? 23.44, 23.43, 23.41?”

    So we are already at 23.5, sunspots are scheduled for disappearance and our magnetic shield is steadily reducing. Time to move to somewhere warmer and sunnier, Australia perhaps ?

    I wonder if there’s any evidence to support dscott’s assertion. If he’s correct, then the focus becomes refining when and at what rate temperatures decline and the consequent impact on our food supply.

  7. P.G. Sharrow says:

    About 3,000 years ago the Great Basin was a much wetter place. The Northern storm track that now runs just north of California in Oregon and Washington dipped into northern California and Nevada. Inland lakes, now dry, will fill from Surprise Valley to Salt lake. pg

  8. E.M.Smith says:


    So “get a house boat, move to the Nevada Desert, and wait?” Works for me ;-)

    ( I like house boats and would not mind at all having one on a trailer in the desert… the visual would be worth it! ;-0

    @J. Martin;

    That is a ‘necessary consequence’ of Milankovich. We only leave the glacial when ALL the parameters are in one extreme. Obliquity or tilt, precession, eccentricity. ANY one gets out of alignment, it’s back to the meat locker. At tilt is first to leave, that one matters more now. It’s just a matter of time.

    The folks thinking we’ve got 50,000 or 100,000 years due to changes of eccentricity miss that simple point. Yes, it goes to the “OK” zone. But that doesn’t stop the rest… We need all three in a PARTICULAR form to have an interglacial. So having one or two in that form while the other one still wanders just means we have a different depth of glacial of speed of progression.

    Like having all three switches be “ON” to have warmth. Saying “Look, that one is going to be locked on!” doesn’t help if the third one cycles regularly…

    That Tallbloke article is an interesting one. Quick scan, it looks good. I’ll give it a more careful read after dinner… but yes, this Grand Minimum is going to be a shocker to a lot of folks.


    Yes. One of the things I’d like to see (and Vuk comes close to it) is an integration of the Electric Flows with the atmospheric / water flows and UV changes. I think they account for all known facts.


    Thanks! Nice find! More to read ;-)

    Nice to have some more ‘bits’ to fit into the pattern. Especially the Aurora, as they are not just showing solar activity, but electric flows as well.

  9. Pascvaks says:

    People and civilizations don’t do well in cold weather, and for some reason there’s a higher chance of some superbug or deadly gizmo-virus when things get cold. I still haven’t figured out how it’s done, but the birth rate takes a dive too, dispite all that cuddling together intimacy just to say a little warmer on those cold nights. Talk about a mystery! So anyway, when the temps start to plumit, it seems the most important industries will be in wool, prescription and OTC drugs, raindeer skins (with hair), not to mention a ban on birth control pills and IUDs. I suspect that a special Wall Street Watch Report will also be called for in those and a few other areas. Might also be smart to get a few thousand more Strategic Oil Reserves built in a number of warm climate spots around the globe, of course the locals might not like it but say la vie, right? Yes, the world will be very suprised if things get cold, and the hordes will ride again. We were barbarians before we were farmers and shop keepers, I have a feeling we still are, and will be again. People ARE the most amazing creatures!;-)

  10. Pascvaks says:

    PS: Late (Nicotine Indused) Vision of the Cold New World Order:
    Jay Leno on his show, not a joke, serious as a heart attack, was heard to cry as he looked straight into the camera at the millions in his audience:
    “A Horse! A Horse! My entire car collection for a Horse! Please? I’ll throw in my entire warehouse of original parts for nothing too!”

  11. E.M.Smith says:


    Leno is a cool guy with his head on straight. He understands how screwed up things are… I think he is from the category of “Left Attitudes with a Rational Right understanding”. So he’s “clueful” but “wants good to happen”. My kind of guy.

    So he knows the present course of things is “not good” and long run that means little things like personal car collections are, um, less important…

    Per cold and behaviours / births:

    The tendency to have kids is variable with economic times. Folks just choose that they can’t support / afford more kids to feed. This can be via things as simple as abstinence (Catholic solution) to birth control pills (Modern Protestant solution) to infanticide (old European fact of life) to killing of Dad in wars (common from Islam to the Crusaids…)

    How is cold tough on life via diseases? First off, UV kills many pathogens. During low UV periods, things like fungus grow better on plants. I’ve got some mildew on squash leaves earlier than usual. For some molds, like ergot, it can then get into human food supplies (or animal foods). As more things are made ill, other bugs take the opportunity to move in too. Higher reproduction rates lead to faster mutation rates. Finally, the tendency to conciev depends on body fat levels. If body fat is too low, a woman will not become pregnant. As food stress spreads, birth rates drop off. As excercise levels rise, the ovulation cycle can stop (women athletes experience this sometimes). So as it takes ever more work just to stay alive, fertility drops. Add up all those things (and more – like infections) and you end up with lower birth rates in times of stress.

    Furthermore, food stress reduces immunity. Don’t get enough vit C, E, and D (from UV) you can’t fight off bugs as well. Same thing for some other animals and plants as well. So more individuals are “not fit enough” to fight off the infections. Now you are back in the land of plagues and contagion… More deaths and dying. More coubles with a spouse dead.

    Sidebar: Posting this from firefox inside DSL – Damn Small Linux. It’s working fine. It is very nice in “full screen mode” (right-ctrl F in Virtual Box) and I did need to turn off “mouse integration” to avoid some arguing over who has the mouse when between DSL and Windows; but that’s fairly small stuff. Boots fast and works well. Probably going to now just spend some time figuring out how to get more ‘day to day’ functions into it. Things like saving files and making state persistent from one boot to another.

  12. adolfogiurfa says:

    @Pascvaks: Where there was COLD and everything was white, there was not anything GREEN left to eat, only predators roaming around: Then it began our passion for BARBECUES!. Save coal, wood or whatever to keep the holy carbon fire burning…!!

  13. adolfogiurfa says:

    BTW: Cave men?, think about them…they were not primitives at all, they were a few who had the luck of finding a cave for surviving!

  14. adolfogiurfa says:

    If human beings, in special those living in the former “third world countries”, are reproducing themselves a lot it is because nature “smells” the future: We do not need those malthusians preachers like Al Baby, just let nature do what it needs.

  15. adolfogiurfa says:

    A pool bath celebrating HOLY CARBON DIOXIDE:

    For those fools who think it´s poisonous.

  16. Pascvaks says:

    Skinny woman not very warm when cave freeze. Hummm.. skinny woman = no rug rats, not warm in bed, no work much too skinny and weak, caveman get cold and sick, hummmmm.. cold not good for caveman;-) Just getting in the mood, need to brush up on my cavemanese too; which reminds me I’ve also got to get a couple furlined wrestling singlets before there’s a run on the things, wonder if WalMart carrys them? There are some old coal mine shafts around this part of the country, may I should scout the library reference section out to see if there’s some old maps and try to find a nice warm one, with a front AND back door, and mushrooms and horsepuuie, can’t grow mushrooms without horsepuuy, right? This caveman stuff isn’t as easy as ya’ first think it’ll be, make’s me tired just thinking about it;-)

    Life’s hard, better find a good Clan too, my old one’s rather scattered!

  17. Wayne Job says:

    Watched the video on dry ice, once a aircraft maintenance engineer long ago. I remember christmas in the hanger, middle of summer in Australia around 35C. Finish the shift it was beer time. Then things were kept cool in the galley with dry ice and the jet engines used methanol for take of power. Simple fill buckets with methanol throw in a couple of pounds of dry ice, immerse the beer cans and remove within a minute or two before the beer froze, and proceed to the barbeque with a very cold beer. Good memories thank you EM.

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