POTUS has declared a National Emergency:
EU Bites it – Oh Globalism…
Despite a full lock down (IMHO a bit too late), Italy has crossed the 1000 dead mark. That makes it 1/5 of all deaths reported to date. China is sending them some equipment and doctors.
Confirmed Cases and Deaths by Country, Territory, or Conveyance
The coronavirus COVID-19 is affecting 137 countries and territories around the world and 1 international conveyance (the Diamond Princess cruise ship harbored in Yokohama, Japan). The day is reset after midnight GMT+0.
Country Total New Deaths +Deaths Recovered Active Critical Per_1M China 80,815 +1 3,177 64,152 13,486 4,020 56.1 Italy 17,660 +2,547 1,266 +250 1,439 14,955 1,328 292.1 Iran 11,364 +1,289 514 +85 3,529 7,321 135.3 S.Korea 7,979 +110 71 +5 510 7,398 93 155.6 Spain 5,232 +2,086 133 +47 193 4,906 190 111.9 Germany 3,675 +930 8 +2 46 3,621 9 43.9 France 3,661 +785 79 +18 12 3,570 154 56.1 USA 2,269 +572 48 +7 31 2,190 10 6.9 Switz. 1,139 +271 11 +4 4 1,124 131.6 Norway 995 +195 1 1 993 27 183.5 Sweden 814 +127 1 1 812 2 80.6 Nether. 804 +190 10 +5 2 792 1 46.9 Denmark 801 +127 1 800 2 138.3 UK 798 +208 11 +1 18 769 20 11.8 Japan 701 +10 19 118 564 29
The BBC has Ursula Von der Leyen saying “Travel bans do not work”. True, if you don’t do them or wait months… Or does she think the virus has feet, wings, or can swim the ocean? It only moves across distances in people or on objects so stop moving the people around and disinfect the objects.
Drugs that help? An idea…
A few drugs that act to let zink into the cell, where it can block the virus replication, include Chloroquine, an old anti-malarial.
Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects. Certain types of malaria, resistant strains, and complicated cases typically require different or additional medication. It is also occasionally used for amebiasis that is occurring outside the intestines, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus erythematosus. It is taken by mouth.
There is an entire category of drugs based on the same core, aminoquinoline, and IMHO, they need testing and evaluation pronto:
4-Aminoquinoline is a form of aminoquinoline with the amino group at the 4-position of the quinoline. The compound has been used as a precursor for the synthesis of its derivatives.
A variety of derivatives of 4-aminoquinoline are antimalarial agents useful in treating erythrocytic plasmodial infections. Examples include amodiaquine, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine. Other uses for the derivatives are: anti-asthmatic, antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-malarial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents.
Another such drug is Quercetin. Also found in some foods and sold over the counter in health food stores. It takes a lot and likely isn’t the best, but is available widely.
Quercetin is a plant flavonol from the flavonoid group of polyphenols. It is found in many fruits, vegetables, leaves, seeds, and grains; red onions and kale are common foods containing appreciable content of quercetin. Quercetin has a bitter flavor and is used as an ingredient in dietary supplements, beverages, and foods.
The wiki goes on to say no-way it is useful for treating any disease, but… we don’t trust Wiki, now do we:
Viruses. 2016 Jan; 8(1): 6.
Published online 2015 Dec 25. doi: 10.3390/v8010006
Quercetin as an Antiviral Agent Inhibits Influenza A Virus (IAV) Entry
Wenjiao Wu,1 Richan Li,1 Xianglian Li,1 Jian He,1 Shibo Jiang,2,3 Shuwen Liu,1,* and Jie Yang1,2,*
Curt Hagedorn, Academic Editor
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause seasonal pandemics and epidemics with high morbidity and mortality, which calls for effective anti-IAV agents. The glycoprotein hemagglutinin of influenza virus plays a crucial role in the initial stage of virus infection, making it a potential target for anti-influenza therapeutics development. Here we found that quercetin inhibited influenza infection with a wide spectrum of strains, including A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1), A/FM-1/47/1 (H1N1), and A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 7.756 ± 1.097, 6.225 ± 0.467, and 2.738 ± 1.931 μg/mL, respectively. Mechanism studies identified that quercetin showed interaction with the HA2 subunit. Moreover, quercetin could inhibit the entry of the H5N1 virus using the pseudovirus-based drug screening system. This study indicates that quercetin showing inhibitory activity in the early stage of influenza infection provides a future therapeutic option to develop effective, safe and affordable natural products for the treatment and prophylaxis of IAV infections.
Keywords: entry inhibitor, hemagglutinin, influenza A virus, quercetin
So looks like those kale eaters and lovers of red onions are on to something.
Looking at the two molecules, they are similar (Couple of joined rings, substituted, and a dangly bit off the top). Then the names and “old antimalarial” got me thinking about quinine. Might it be antiviral? You can get modest doses in Tonic Water at the grocery store. FWIW, I like Schweppes the best ;-)
Volume 255, 15 August 2018, Pages 171-178
Drug repurposing of quinine as antiviral against dengue virus infection
Dengue virus (DENV) disease outbreaks continue to develop across the globe with significant associated mortality and economic burden, yet no treatment has been approved to combat this virus. In an attempt to identify novel drug candidates as therapeutics for DENV infection, we evaluated four US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs including aminolevullic acid, azelaic acid, mitoxantrone hydrochloride, and quinine sulfate, and tested their ability to inhibit DENV replication using focus-forming unit assay to quantify virus production. Of the four investigated compounds, quinine was found to have the most pronounced anti-DENV activity. Quinine inhibited DENV production of DENV by about 80% compared to untreated controls, while the other three drugs decreased virus production by only about 50%. Moreover, quinine inhibited DENV production of all four serotypes of DENV. Reduction in virus production was documented in three different cell lines of human origin. Quinine significantly inhibited DENV replication by reducing DENV RNA and viral protein synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, quinine ameliorated expression of genes related to innate immune response. These findings suggest the efficacy of quinine for stimulating antiviral genes to reduce DENV replication. The antiviral activity of quinine observed in this study may have applicability in the development of new drug therapies against DENV
Yes, not Covid-19, but has potential.
I think Gin & Tonic will be making a comeback, and for now is my drink of choice. Just wish I’d bought some before buttoning up…
Do note that quinine at large theraputic doses can have significant side effects and overdose can cause deafness and even death, so stick to modest beverage levels.
Prior postings in the category: Covid